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LINXS ADA Coordinator

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LAX APM ADA Coordinator Files (LINXS)

Glossary

A collection of common terms and concepts related to accessibility. Cited sources include, but are not limited to, the 2019 California Building Code (CBC), the ADA National Network, the Northeast ADA Center, and the ADA Action Guide. Quoted definitions may be lightly edited for spelling, grammar, punctuation, or other non-substantial purposes.

Acronyms (and some initialisms) are provided with pronunciation guides in two formats: first, “dictionary” format (mostly via Merriam-Webster Online); and second, IPA symbols (mostly via Wiktionary), which are set betweeen “/” marks by custom. Each IPA prounciation includes an external link to a computer-generated audio pronunciation.

Glossary Terms

1991 Standards
The requirements of the 1991 ADA Standards as set forth in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design, originally published on July 26, 1991, and republished as Appendix D to 28 CFR Part 36.
2004 ADAAG
The requirements of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines as set forth in appendices B and D to 36 CFR part 1191 (2009).
2010 Standards
The 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, which consist of the 2004 ADAAG and the requirements contained in §35.151 (for public entities) or in Subpart D of 28 CFR Part 36 (for private entities).
21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act
“The 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) was signed in 2010 and is enforced by the FCC. This act ensures that emerging technologies and communications are accessible to those with disabilities. Title I of the CVAA refers to communications access, whereas Title II refers to video programming.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
a11y
A numeronym for “accessibility” created by starting with “a” followed by 11 characters and ending with “y” (similar to “i18n” for “internationalization” and “L10n” for “localization”). Can be read like “ally” (ˈa-ˌlī or /ˈæl.aɪ/) as a kind of initialism (“A eleven Y”).
ABA
Abbreviation (initialism) for Architectural Barriers Act
Abbreviation
“A shortened or contracted form of a word or phrase, used to represent the whole”—dictionary.com
ACAA
Abbreviation (initialism) for Air Carrier Access Act
Access Board
“The Access Board is an independent federal agency that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards. Created in 1973 to ensure access to federally funded facilities, the Board is now a leading source of information on accessible design. The Board develops and maintains design criteria for the built environment, transit vehicles, telecommunications equipment, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. It also provides technical assistance and training on these requirements and accessible design and continues to enforce accessibility standards that cover federally funded facilities.”—https://www.access-board.gov/about/
Note: Also known as the United States Access Board and the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.
Accessibility
The combination of various elements in a building, facilty, site, or area, or portion thereof which allows access, circulation and the full use of the building and facilities by persons with disabilities in compliance with this code.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“The art of ensuring that, to as large an extent as possible, facilities (such as, for example, Web access) are available to people whether or not they have impairments of one sort or another.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Accessibility Information
“Content, including information and markup, that is used to improve the accessibility of a document. Accessibility information includes, but is not limited to, equivalent alternative information.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Accessibility Law
“Any statute, law, code, regulation, ordinance, rule or common law applicable to the Contracted Work that pertains to the accessibility of facilities for any Individual with a Disability, including the following (each as may be amended from time to time):
  • all Title II and Title III regulations of the ADA (28 C.F.R. Part 35);
  • Section 504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. § 701 et seq.);
  • Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance (49 C.F.R. Part 27);
  • the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq.);
  • Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities (28 C.F.R. Part 36);
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities; Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines (36 C.F.R. Part 1191);
  • Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA) (49 C.F.R. Part 37);
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles (49 C.F.R. 38); and
  • the California Disabled Persons Act (§ 54 et seq. of the California Civil Code).”
—Excerpt from Design-Build Contract for the Design and Construction of the Automated People Mover Project
Accessible
A site, building, facility, or portion thereof that is approachable and usable by persons with disabilities in compliance with this code.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“In order for something to be accessible, it must offer an equivalent experience to everyone including those with a disability. This can refer to physical locations, but in the context of online accessibility it refers to a disabled user’s access to electronic information. The content and design must provide the most convenient and all-encompassing experience possible to prevent any level of exclusion.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Accessible Element
An element specified by the regulations adopted by the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Accessible Information Technology
“Technology that can be used by people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities. It incorporates the principles of universal design, whereby each user is able to interact with the technology in ways that work best for him or her.”—ADA National Network
Accessible Route
A continuous unobsructed path connecting accessible elements and spaces of an accessible site, building or facility that can be negotiated by a person with a disability using a wheelchair, and that is also safe for and usable by persons with other disabilities. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, hallways, floors, ramps, elevators and lifts. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks and vehicular ways, walks, ramps and lifts.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Accessible Space
A space that complies with the accessibility provisions of this code.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Acronym
An abbreviation that is pronounced as a word, such as “NATO” (ˈnā-(ˌ)tō or /ˈneɪ.toʊ/) or “AIDS” (ˈādz or /eɪdz/); some acronyms become so common that they are no longer capitalized, such as “laser” (ˈlā-zər or /ˈleɪzɚ/) or “scuba” (ˈskü-bə or /ˈskuːbə/)
ADA
Abbreviation (initialism) for Americans with Disabilities Act
ADA Accessibility Guidelines
“Guidelines drafted by the Access Board that describe the minimum requirements that a building should exhibit in order to be accessible.”—ADA National Network
Note: Guidelines published by the United States Access Board are not enforceable regulations until adopted by an authorized federal agency. See “ADA Standards” for standards enforced by DOJ.
ADA Coordinator
The ADA Coordinator is the individual retained by the Developer with the responsibility for coordination, design support, periodic assessment and reporting of ADA compliance for all aspects of the D&C Work. The ADA Coordinator shall report to the Quality Program Manager.
“The Americans with Disabilities Act requires state and local entities with over 50 employees to designate an ADA Coordinator to oversee and coordinate ADA compliance. The U.S. Department [of Justice] also strongly recommends that smaller entities also designate an ADA Coordinator as they have the same compliance obligations as larger entities. Since the passage of the ADA in 1990 business,corporations, industries,non-profit agencies, and private K-12 and post-secondary institutions have found having an ADA Coordinator to be essential to meeting ADA compliance obligations. The position of ADA Coordinator, once relatively obscure has now become common-place.”—https://www.adacoordinator.org/page/About
ADA Review
A quality control process in which the ADA Coordinator reviews design and construction documents for compliance with applicable accessibility laws, standards, regulations, and project requirements
ADA Standards
Enforceable (adopted) design, construction, and operational standards. Assumed to be the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design adopted by the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) unless otherwise noted. (Other possibilities are the 2006 ADA Standards for Transportation Facilities adopted by the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), or the 1991 ADA Standards jointly adopted by the DOJ and the DOT.)
ADAAG
Abbreviation (acronym or initialism) for ADA Accessibility Guidelines. Usually read as “a dag” (ˈā-dag or /ˈeɪ.dæg/) as an acronym, but can be spelled out as an initialism.
ADAC
Abbreviation (initialism) for ADA Coordinator
Adaptive Technology
“Name for products which help people who cannot use regular versions of products, primarily people with physical disabilities such as limitations to vision, hearing, and mobility.”—ADA National Network
ADAR
Abbreviation (initialism) for ADA Review
ADAS
Abbreviation (initialism or acronym) for ADA Standards. Usually read out as an initialism, but can be read as “a dass” (ˈā-däs or /eɪdæs/) as an acronym.
ADR
Abbreviation (initialism) for Alternative Dispute Resolution
AFC
Abbreviation (initialism) for Approved For Construction
Agency
“Any agency or department of the United States as defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502, and the United States Postal Service.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
“Any executive department, military department, Government corporation, Government controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency, but does not include—
  1. the Government Accountability Office;
  2. Federal Election Commission;
  3. the governments of the District of Columbia and of the territories and possessions of the United States, and their various subdivisions; or
  4. Government-owned contractor-operated facilities, including laboratories engaged in national defense research and production activities.”
44 USC §3502 Definitions
AGT
Abbreviation (initialism) for Automated Guideway Transit
Air Carrier Access Act
The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 (ACAA), codified at 49 U.S.C. 41705), prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in air travel. Since 1990, the United States Department of Transportation defines regulations for the rights of passengers and the obligations of airlines under this law at 14 CFR Part 382(updated in 2013 to include airline websites and kiosks). This rule applies to all flights of domestic (United States) airlines, and to flights to or from the United States by foreign airlines. See https://www.transportation.gov/airconsumer/passengers-disabilities for additional information.
Airport Metro Connector
A light rail transit station located on the Crenshaw/LAX line (future “K Line”) at Aviation Boulevard and 96th Street, often abbreviated (initialized) as “AMC”
…“Once in operation, this new station will let riders transfer quickly and easily between LAX and Metro’s network. ¶ Located on the future line under construction now as the Crenshaw/LAX Transit Project, AMC includes a light rail station, bus plaza, bicycle parking, customer service center, passenger pick-up and drop-off area, and direct connection to the future LAX Automated People Mover (APM) to provide more options for travelers and employees to get to the airport.”—Excerpt from Airport Metro Connector at https://www.metro.net/projects/airport-metro-connector/
Airport/Private Bus Transit
“A passenger facility building which is shared between a transit mode and an airport, private bus provider, or the passenger facility provides connectivity to an airport. Connectivity may mean station and airport are connected directly via pedestrian overpasses, indirectly via airport shuttle buses, or directly with rail cars entering a station located in an airport building. Shared space for private bus providers may include passenger waiting areas, restrooms and ticket vending locations.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
ALS
Abbreviation (initialism) for Assistive Listening System
Alteration
“Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition. A change, addition or modification in construction, change in occupancy or use, or structural repair to an existing building or facility. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, resurfacing of circulationpaths or vehicular ways, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“An alteration is a change to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility that affects or could affect the usability of the building or facility or any part thereof. … Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement in structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, asbestos removal, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.”— Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.402 Alterations)
“A change to existing ICT that affects interoperability, the user interface, or access to information or data.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Alternate Formats
“Alternate formats usable by people with disabilities may include, but are not limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, recorded audio, and electronic formats….”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
Alternate Methods
“Different means of providing information, including product documentation, to people with disabilities. Alternate methods may include, but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay service, TTY, Internet posting, captioning, text-to-speech synthesis, and audio description.”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
Alternative Dispute Resolution
“Resolution … outside of the traditional legal setting; includes mediation and arbitration.”—ADA National Network
American Sign Language
“The dominant sign language of the Deaf community in the United States, in the English-speaking parts of Canada, and in parts of Mexico.”—ADA National Network
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
“Usually pronounced as [ask-e], this term for character encoding is based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, including assistive technology (AT) such as screen readers and telephone relay service (TRS) equipment.”—ADA National Network
Americans with Disabilities Act
Civil rights law (Public Law 101-336) prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities. Assumed to include all subsequent amendments, including the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA, Public Law 110-325), unless otherwise noted.
“Signed into law on July 26, 1990, the ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other characteristics illegal.”—ADA National Network
“The legislation requires transportation providers to make transportation accessible to individuals with disabilities, and specifies agencies’ responsibilities in this effort.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
ANSI
“The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standards and conformity assessment system.”—https://ansi.org/about/introduction
APC
Abbreviation (initialism) for Automatic Passenger Counter
APM
Abbreviation (initialism) for Automated People Mover
Application
Software designed to perform, or to help the user to perform, a specific task or tasks.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Approved For Construction
Documents that have been reviewed and approved by appropriate relevant parties, and that are now authorized to be utilized by construction teams to demolish, build, or install designated elements of the project
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board
The official (legal) name of the Access Board.
Architectural Barriers
“Obstacles or other features in the built environment that impede individuals with disabilities from gaining full and complete access to the goods and services being provided.”—ADA National Network
“Obstacles or other features in the built environment that impede individuals with disabilities from gaining full and complete access to the goods and services being provided.”—ADA National Network
Architectural Barriers Act
Federal law (Public Law 90-480) passed in 1968 with the intent to “insure that certain buildings financed with Federal funds are so designed and constructed as to be accessible to the physically handicapped.” (excerpt from the Act)
“The ABA was the first federal law to require that federal facilities be accessible to people with disabilities. Examples of federal facilities are post offices, social security offices, federal courthouses, and national parks. Because the ABA was already in place in 1990 when the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed, the ADA doesn’t cover federal facilities.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Addresses scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, buildings, and elements by individuals with disabilities.”—ADA National Network
ASCE
“The American Society of Civil Engineers represents more than 150,000 members of the civil engineering profession in 177 countries. Founded in 1852, ASCE is the nation’s oldest engineering society. … Through the expertise of its active membership, ASCE is a leading provider of technical and professional conferences and continuing education, the world’s largest publisher of civil engineering content, and an authoritative source for codes and standards that protect the public.”—https://www.asce.org/about_asce/
ASCII
Abbreviation (acronym) for American Standard Code for Information Interchange; usually read as “a-ski” (ˈa-(ˌ)skē or /ˈæski/).
ASL
Abbreviation (initialism) for American Sign Language
Assembly Area
A building or facility, or portion thereof, used for the purpose of entertainment, educational or civic gatherings, or similar purposes. For the purposes of these requirements, assembly areas include, but are not limited to, classrooms, lecture halls, courtrooms, public meeting rooms, public hearing rooms, legislative chambers, motion picture houses, auditoria, theaters, playhouses, dinner theaters, concert halls, centers for the performing arts, amphitheaters, areas, stadiums, grandstands or convention centers.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Note that for the purpose of accessibility compliance, classification of a space as an “assembly area” is determined by the actual use or function of that space, not by general categorizations under the building code or other regulations.
Assistive Listening System
An amplification system utilizing transmitters, receivers and coupling devices to bypass the acoustical space between an sound source and a listeners by means of induction loop, radio frequency, infrared or direct-wired equipment.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Assistive Technology
“Any item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Examples include message boards, screen readers, refreshable Braille displays, keyboard and mouse modifications, and head pointers.”—National ADA Network
Examples of Common Assitive Technologies (Source: Wikipedia)
Impairment Assistive technology
Communication impairment Blissymbols board or similar device; electronic speech synthesizer
Hearing impairment hearing aids, earphones, headphones, headsets; real-time closed captioning; teletypewriter; sign language avatars
Mobility impairment Page-turning device; adaptive keyboards and computer mice (pointing devices such as trackballs, vertical mouse, foot mouse, or programmable pedal)
Physical or mental impairment, learning disability Voice recognition software, refreshable braille display, screen reader
Perceptual disability, learning disability Talking textbooks, virtual keyboard
Visual impairment, learning disability Modified monitor interface, magnification devices; reading service, e-text
Visual impairment, learning disability Braille note-taker; Braille printer; screen magnifiers; optical scanner
“Any item, piece of equipment, or system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is commonly used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
“Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Association
“An entity may not discriminate against individuals or entities because of their relationship with a person with a disability.”—ADA National Network
AT
Abbreviation (initialism) for Assistive Technology
Audio Description
“Audio Description describes relevant and key visual information to viewers who can’t see the screen. It is particularly useful for blind or low vision individuals, but can also be helpful to those who are unable to look at the screen at all times.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
“Narration added to the soundtrack to describe important visual details that cannot be understood from the main soundtrack alone. Audio description is a means to inform individuals who are blind or who have low vision about visual content essential for comprehension. Audio description of video provides information about actions, characters, scene changes, on-screen text, and other visual content. Audio description supplements the regular audio track of a program. Audio description is usually added during existing pauses in dialogue. Audio description is also called "video description" and "descriptive narration".”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Authoring Tool
“Any software, or collection of software components, that can be used by authors, alone or collaboratively, to create or modify content for use by others, including other authors.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Automated Guideway Transit
“A fixed-guideway transit system which operates with automated (driverless) individual vehicles or multi-car trains. Service may be on a fixed schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
“The term "automated guideway transit" pertains to the method of train control and not necessarily to a category of vehicles exclusively. Some rapid rail and light rail systems could be considered to operate as an AGT system. The vehicles of such systems would not be covered by this section [§1192.173 of subpart H of 36 CFR Part 1192] but by subpart C [of 36 CFR Part 1192] in the case of rapid rail vehicles or subpart D [of 36 CFR Part 1192] in the case of light rail vehicles. Although most of the requirements for AGT systems are the same as those for rapid rail, AGT vehicles, as discussed above, are required to be more closely coordinated with the platform.”—Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems: Technical Assistance Manual (1992) (via the Access Board)
“Guided transit passenger vehicles operating singly or in multi-car trains with a fully automated system (no crew on transit units). Service may be on a fixed schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button. Automated guideway transit includes personal rapid transit, group rapid transit and people mover system.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
Automated Guideway Vehicle
“Guided transit passenger vehicles operating under a fully automated system (no crew on transit units).”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
Automated People Mover
“A guided transit mode with fully automatic operation, featuring vehicles that operate on guideways with exclusive right-of-way.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
Automatic Passenger Counter
“An automated means of counting boarding and alighting passengers (e.g., treadle mats or infrared beams placed by the door) (www.its.dot.gov).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Automatic Vehicle Location
“Position determination via an automatic technology or combination of technologies, such as Global Positioning System (triangulation of satellite signals), Signposts (beacons at known locations transmit signals picked up by vehicle), Ground-Based Radio (triangulation of radio tower signals), or Dead-Reckoning (vehicle’s odometer and compass used to measure new position from previous known position), and typically includes real-time reporting of that location to a dispatcher (www.its.dot.gov).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Auxiliary Aid or Service
“Communications tools or assistance offered to someone with a sensory disability. … For example, a pen and paper can improve communication with a person who is Deaf or hard of hearing, as can text messaging on smartphones. Additional examples include sign language interpreters and Communication Access Real-Time Captioning (CART), as well as TTY for telephony, Braille and large-print reading materials, and audiobooks.”—Northeast ADA Center
AVL
Abbreviation (initialism) for Automatic Vehicle Location
Barrier
Something prevents access or usability for a person with a disability. Barriers can be physical (architectural) or programmatic (operational), but this is not an exhaustive list.
Barrier-Free
An element, space, building, or facility, or portion thereof, that has no architectural barriers to individuals with physical or sensory disabilities.
Blended Transition
A raised pedestrian street crossing, depressed corner or similar connection between the pedestrian access route at the level of the sidewalk and the level of the pedestrian street crossing that has a grade of 5 percent or less.”—2019 CBC, Section 202 (copied from Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG))
Braille
“A system of raised dots that may be used as one type of substitute for print by individuals with visual impairments. The raised dots provide tactile information, and are meant to be felt instead of viewed. Braille letters do not feel like—or look like—the English alphabet. The dots are arranged in small groups, with each group representing a letter or a group of letters. Not all people who have a visual disability can read Braille.”—Northeast ADA Center
Building
“Any structure utilized or intended for supporting or sheltering any occupancy.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
BU
Abbreviation (initialism) for Buses vehicle type
Bus
“Any of several types of self-propelled vehicles, generally rubber-tired, intended for use on city streets, highways, and busways, including but not limited to minibuses, forty– and thirty-foot buses, articulated buses, double-deck buses, and electrically powered trolley buses, used by public entities to provide designated public transportation service and by private entities to provide transportation service including, but not limited to, specified public transportation services. Self-propelled, rubber-tired vehicles designed to look like antique or vintage trolleys are considered buses.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
“A transit mode [(MB)] comprised of rubber-tired passenger vehicles operating on fixed routes and schedules over roadways. Vehicles are powered by:
  • Diesel
  • Gasoline
  • Battery
  • Alternative fuel engines
contained within the vehicle.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Bus Rapid Transit
A tranist mode (RB) consisting of “Fixed-route bus systems that operate at least 50 percent of the service on fixed guideway. These systems also have defined passenger stations, traffic signal priority or preemption, short headway bidirectional services for a substantial part of weekdays and weekend days; low-floor vehicles or level-platform boarding, and separate branding of the service. Agencies typically use off-board fare collection as well. This is often a lower-cost alternative to light rail.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Bus Stop
“Pre-defined location for passengers to board and/or alight the transit vehicle, typically on-street, at the curb, or in a median, sometimes with a shelter, sign, or lighting.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Buses
Vehicle type (BU) consisting of “Rubber-tired passenger vehicles powered by diesel, gasoline, battery or alternative fuel engines contained within the vehicle. Vehicles in this category do not include articulated, double-decked, or school buses. Includes cutaway/body-on-chassis vehicles for urban reporting.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Busway
“A roadway reserved for buses only. It may be a grade separated or controlled access roadway. Also known as "Bus Lane."”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
CA-MUTCD
A version of the MUTCD amended by Caltrans for applications in California
CALGreen
Abbreviation (contraction) for California Green Buildings Standards Code, Part 11 of Title 24, CCR
Caltrans
California Department of Transportation
Captioning
“Displaying audio as text on a screen or other visual device. Captioning can occur at a live event, such as a lecture. Captioning can also be applied to a recording, such as a movie. Captioning includes both the spoken word and other sounds that are important to an event or communication. To be effective, captioning must be timely, complete, accurate, and efficient. There are two general types of captions: closed and open. Closed captions, often identified by [CC], are available in a separate stream from a given media source. Closed captions can be turned on or off by the user. Open captions are "baked" into the media and are always visible.”—Northeast ADA Center
“The art of adding captions to a television program or movie.”—usability.gov, Accessibility Glossary Terms
“A process in which audio is transcribed into text. The text is then divided into caption frames and synchronized within the video to match the audio.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Captions
“A textual representation of sounds—usually associated with television programming or movies; captions are meant to display in real time and to capture speech sounds and sounds beyond speech in some cases.”—usability.gov, Accessibility Glossary Terms
“Closed captions are the output of the captioning process, and are typically located on the bottom of a video screen as an overlay. They are sections of time-coded text, which reflect the audio of a video to include both spoken words and non-verbal sounds. Captions are great for d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing individuals since each caption frame communicates all audio elements, including speaker IDs and sound effects.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Carbody
“The structural body shell, enclosing the passenger compartment(s).”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
CART
Abbreviation (acronym) for Computer-aided Real-time Transcription
Cascading Style Sheet(s)
“A language that allows authors and readers to attach style (e.g. fonts, colors and spacing) to HTML and XML documents.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
CBC
Abbreviation (initialism) for California Building Code; Part 2 of Title 24, CCR
Note: Assumed to be the 2016 edition unless otherwise noted.
CCTA
Abbreviation (initialism) for “Center CTA Station” (also known as “CTA Center Station” or “Station B”), one of the public APM stations that serves Terminals 2, 5 and 6
CCR or C.C.R.
Abbreviation (initialism) for California Code of Regulations
Central Terminal Area
The primary public-facing portion of Los Angeles International Airport, including terminal buildings, parking garages, surface parking, roadways, control towers, and other buildings within the “horseshoe” roadway.
CFR or C.F.R.
Abbreviation (initialism) for Code of Federal Regulations
Channelization Device
“A traffic separation system made up of a raised longitudinal channelizer with vertical panels or tubular delineators. These devices can serve several purposes such as being placed between opposing highway lanes designated to alert or guide traffic in a particular direction, or as a fencing system used to separate modes (e.g., channelize pedestrians).”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Characters
Letters, numbers, punctuation marks and typographic symbols.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Circulation Path
“An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians. An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel, including but not limited to, walks, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways and landings.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
CJV
Abbreviation (initialism) for Construction Joint Venture
Clear
Unobstructed.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Clear Floor Space
The minimum unobstructed floor or ground space required to accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair and occupant.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Closed Functionality
“Characteristics that limit functionality or prevent a user from attaching or installing assistive technology. Examples of ICT with closed functionality are self-service machines, information kiosks, set-top boxes, fax machines, calculators, and computers that are locked down so that users may not adjust settings due to a policy such as Desktop Core Configuration.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Color Vision Deficiency
The inability to differentiate certain colors; commonly referred to as “colorblind” or “colorblindness” (though “person with CVD” is more inclusive as person-first language).
Combined Administrative and Maintenance Facility
“Any facility with combined functions of at least one administrative facility type and one maintenance facility type.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Commerce
“Travel, trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication –
  1. Among the several States;
  2. Between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any State; or
  3. Between points in the same State but through another State or foreign country.”
Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Commercial Facilities
“Facilities –
  1. Whose operations will affect commerce;
  2. That are intended for nonresidential use by a private entity; and
  3. That are not –
    1. Facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage under the Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 3601 - 3631);
    2. Aircraft; or
    3. Railroad locomotives, railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, commuter or intercity passenger rail cars (including coaches, dining cars, sleeping cars, lounge cars, and food service cars), any other railroad cars described in section 242 of the Act or covered under title II of the Act, or railroad rights-of-way. For purposes of this definition, "rail" and "railroad" have the meaning given the term "railroad" in section 202(e) of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (45 U.S.C. 431(e)).”
Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Facilities whose operations will affect commerce and are intended for non-residential use by a private entity. Commercial facilities shall not include (1) facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage under the Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 3601-3631); (2) aircraft; or (3) railroad locomotives, railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, commuter or intercity passenger rail cars (including coaches, dining cars, sleeping cars, lounge cars and food service cars), any other railroad cars described by Section 242 of the Americans with Disabilities Act or covered under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act, or railroad rights-of-way. For the purposes of this definition, "rail" and "railroad" have the meaning given the term "railroad" in Section 202(e) of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (45 U.S.C. 431(e)).”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“Nonresidential facilities, including office buildings, factories, and warehouses, whose operations affect commerce.”—ADA National Network
Common Use
Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Communication Systems
“Systems for exchanging information including two-way radio systems for communications between dispatchers and vehicle operators, cab signaling and train control equipment in rail systems, automatic vehicle locator systems, automated dispatching systems, vehicle guidance systems, telephones, facsimile machines and public address systems.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Commuter Authority
“Any state, local, regional authority, corporation, or other entity established for purposes of providing commuter rail transportation (including, but not necessarily limited to, the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Connecticut Department of Transportation, the Maryland Department of Transportation, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, the New Jersey Transit Corporation, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, and any successor agencies) and any entity created by one or more such agencies for the purposes of operating, or contracting for the operation of, commuter rail transportation.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
Commuter Rail Transportation
“Short-haul rail passenger service operating in metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fare, multiple ride, and commutation tickets and by morning and evening peak period operations. This term does not include light [rail] or rapid rail transportation.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
A tranist mode (CR) consisting of “An electric or diesel propelled railway for urban passenger train service consisting of local travel which operates between a central city and outlying areas. Service must be operated on a regular basis by or under contract with a transit operator for the purpose of transporting passengers within urbanized areas (UZAs), or between urbanized areas and outlying areas. Commuter rail is generally characterized by multi-trip tickets, specific station-to-station fares, railroad employment practices, relatively long distance between stops, and only 1-2 stations in the central business district.  Note: Intercity rail service is excluded from Commuter Rail, except for that portion of such service that is operated by or under contract with a public transit agency for predominantly commuter services for which more than 50 percent of the average daily ridership makes a return trip on the same day.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“Long-haul rail passenger service operating between metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fare for multiple rides, and commutation tickets for regular, recurring riders. Also known as "regional rail" or "suburban rail."”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
Computer-aided Real-time Transcription
“The instant translation of the spoken word into text … using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and realtime software. The text produced by the CART service can be displayed on an individual’s computer monitor, projected onto a screen, combined with a video presentation to appear as captions, or otherwise made available using other transmission and display systems.”—ADA Action Guide
Computer Language
“A language that is used internally by computers, including programming languages, machine languages, query languages, markup languages etc.”—Wiktionary
ConRAC
Abbreviation (acronym) for Cosolidated Rent-A-Car Center
Consist
“The makeup or composition (number and specific identity) of a train of vehicles.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
Consolidated Rent-A-Car Center
A separate LAMP project consisting of public and private parking garage and vehicle service facilities for car rental companies, located approximately within the boundary formed by Aviation Boulevard, Arbor Vitae Street, La Cienega Boulevard, and the former 99th Street (one block north of Century Boulevard).
“Bordered by Arbor Vitae Street to the north, Aviation Boulevard to the west, Century Boulevard to the south and La Cienega Boulevard to the east, the approximately 6.4-million-square-foot facility will house over 18,000 rental car vehicles including ready/return, idle storage and employee parking spaces with a rental car leaving the facility approximately every two seconds during peak activities.”—LAWA Consolidated Rent-A-Car Facility (Official Site)
Content
“Electronic information and data, as well as the encoding that defines its structure, presentation, and interactions.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Coordinated Human Services Transportation Plan
“Locally developed transportation plans that:
  • Identify the needs of individuals with disabilities, older adults, and people with low incomes
  • Provide strategies for meeting these needs
  • Prioritize transportation services for funding and implementation
These plans must involve representatives of public, private, and non-profit transportation and human services providers, as well as members of the public.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
CR
Abbreviation (initialism) for Commuter Rail mode
Cross Slope
The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
CSS
Abbreviation (initialism) for Cascading Style Sheet(s).
CTA
Abbreviation (initialism) for Central Terminal Area
Curb Cut
An interruption of a curb at a pedestrian way, which separates surfaces that are substantially at the same elevation.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Curb Line
“A line at the face of the curb that marks the transition between the curb and the gutter, street, or highway.”—Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG)
Curb Ramp
A sloping pedestrian way, intended for pedestiran traffic, which provides access bewtween a walk or sidewalk and a surface located above or below an adjacent curb face.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
CVAA
Abbreviation (initialism) for 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act
CVD
Abbreviation (initialism) for Color Vision Deficiency
D&C
Abbreviation (initialism) for Design and Construction
DAAAC
Abbreviation (acronym or initialism) for Disability Access and Accommodation Advisory Committee. Usually read as “dack” (ˈdak or /dæk/) as an acronym but can be read as an initialism.
DAFN
Abbreviation (acronym or initialism) for Disability, Access, and Functional Needs. Can be read as an initialism or as “daff-in” (ˈda-fən or /ˈdæːfɪn/) as an acronym.
DBFOM
Abbreviation (initialism) for “Design, Build, Finance, Operate, and Maintain”
Demand Responsive System
“Any system of transporting individuals, including the provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of transportation service by private entities, including but not limited to specified public transportation service, which is not a fixed route system.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
Designated Public Transportation
Transportation provided by a public entity (other than public school transportation) by bus, rail, or other conveyance (other than transportation by aircraft or intercity or commuter rail transportation) that provides the general public with general or special service, including charter service, on a regular and continuing basis.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“Transportation provided by a public entity (other than public school transportation) by bus, rail, or other conveyance (other than transportation by aircraft or intercity or commuter rail transportation) that provides the general public with general or special service, including charter service, on a regular and continuing basis.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
Detectable Warning
A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn of hazards on a circulation path.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
DF
Abbreviation (initialism) for “drinking fountain” (plumbing fixture)
Directional Sign
A publicly displayed notice which indicates by use of words or symbols a recommended direction or route of travel.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Disability
Disability is (1) a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual, (2) a record of such an impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“A limitation in an ability.”—usability.gov, Accessibility Glossary Terms
“A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a record of such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment.”—ADA National Network
“Disability means, with respect to an individual: (i) A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; (ii) A record of such an impairment; or (iii) Being regarded as having such an impairment…”—Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.108 Definition of disability) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.105 Definition of "Disability.").
Disability Access and Accommodation Advisory Committee
“The mission of the Disability Access and Accommodation Advisory Committee (DAAAC) is purely advisory aimed at assisting Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) in achieving the fullest access for persons with disabilities who travel using LAWA airports and associated facilities. The committee is also responsible for advising LAWA on reasonable accommodation for disabled persons and assisting in developing training regarding accommodations for LAWA staff, vendors, and others using LAWA facilities. The committee will physically inspect at least one LAWA airport or related facility once per year. The committee shall meet monthly except for exigent circumstances.”—Excerpt from Bylaws of the Los Angeles World Airports Disability Access and Accommodation Advisory Committee draft at https://www.flylax.com/-/media/flylax/pdfs/ada/ada-agenda/daaac-by-laws-draft-011919.ashx
Disability, Access, and Functional Needs
The “superset” of all persons with one or more physical disabilities, communication disabilities, and other kinds of access or functional needs.
Division of the State Architect
A division of the California Department of General Services (DGS) authorized by California state law to develop accessibility standards for the built environment.
Document
“Logically distinct assembly of content (such as a file, set of files, or streamed media) that: functions as a single entity rather than a collection; is not part of software; and does not include its own software to retrieve and present content for users. Examples of documents include, but are not limited to, letters, email messages, spreadsheets, presentations, podcasts, images, and movies.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
DOI
Abbreviation (initialism) for United States Department of the Interior
DOJ
Abbreviation (initialism) for United States Department of Justice
DOL
Abbreviation (initialism) for United States Department of Labor
DOT
Abbreviation (initialism) for United States Department of Transportation
DSA
Abbreviation (initialism) for Division of the State Architect
DSA-AC
Abbreviation (initialism) for the “Access Compliance” subdivision of [the] DSA.
DW
Abbreviation (initialism) for “detectable warning
Dwell Time
“The total time the train services the station measured as the time from door open command to the time the doors are closed and locked.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
Dynamic Envelope
“The clearance required for the train and its cargo overhang due to any combination of loading, lateral motion, or suspension failure.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Dynamic Sign
“A sign on which the messages can be changed.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
ECTA
Abbreviation (initialism) for “East CTA Station” (also known as “CTA East Station” or “Station C”), one of the public APM stations that serves Terminals 1 and 7
EEOC
Abbreviation (initialism) for Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Effective Communication
“Communication with people with disabilities must be as effective as communication with others.”—ADA National Network
EITF
Abbreviation (initialism) for “East ITF Station” (also known as “ITF East Station” or “Station F”), one of the public APM stations that conntects to the Airport Metro Connector facility and surface transportation
Electric Vehicle
An automotive-type vehicle for on-road use, such as passenger autombiles, buses, trucks, vans, neighborhood electric vehicles, electric motorcycles, and the like, primarily powered by an electric motor that draws current from a rechargeable storage battery, fuel cell, photovoltaic array, or other source of electric current. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are considered electric vehicles. For the purpose of this code, off-road, self-propelled electric vehicles, such as industrial trucks, hoists, lifts, transports, golf carts, airline ground support equipment, tractors, boats, and the like, are not included.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Electric Vehicle Charging Station
One or more electric vehicle charging spaces served by an electric vehicle charger or other charging equipment. Where a multiport electric vehicle charger can simultaneously charge more than one vehicle, the number of electric vehicle charging stations shall be considered equivalent to the number of electric vehicles that can be simultaneously charged.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“One or more electric vehicle charging spaces served by electric vehicle charger(s) or other charging equipment allowing charging of electric vehicles. Electric vehicle charging stations are not considered parking spaces.”—2019 CALGreen, Section 202
Electronic and Information Technology
“Includes information technology and any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the creation, conversion, or duplication of data or information. The term electronic and information technology includes, but is not limited to, telecommunications products (such as telephones), information kiosks and transaction machines, World Wide Web sites, multimedia, and office equipment such as copiers and fax machines. The term does not include any equipment that contains embedded information technology that is used as an integral part of the product, but the principal function of which is not the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information. For example, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) equipment such as thermostats or temperature control devices, and medical equipment where information technology is integral to its operation, are not information technology.”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
Element
An architectural or mechanical component of a building, facility, space or site.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Elevated on Fill
“Rail transit way above surface level on fill. Transition segments above surface level on fill are included.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Elevated on Structure
“Rail transit way above surface level on structures. Transition segments above surface level on structures are included.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Elevator
“A compartment that usually moves up and down vertically to transfer passengers from one level of a station or parking facility to another. Elevators may move horizontally, such as from a station to an adjacent parking garage, but such movement is normally done by non-elevator means such as a pedestrian bridge or a moving sidewalk. Does not include non-passenger elevators used only for freight or by transit staff.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Employee Work Area
“All or any portion of a space used only by employees and only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Entrance
Any access point to a building or portion of a building or facility used for the purpose of entering. An entrance includes the approach walk, the vertical access leading to the entrance platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibule if provided, the entry door or gate, and the hardware of the entry door or gate.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
“Federal agency primarily responsible for enforcement of Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which deals with employment discrimination.”—ADA National Network
Equal Opportunity
“An opportunity for people with disabilities to participate and benefit from programs and services that is equal to and as effective as the opportunity provided to others.”—ADA National Network
Equivalent Alternative Information
Content is "equivalent" to other content when both fulfill essentially the same function or purpose upon presentation to the user.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Equivalent Facilitation
The use of designs, products or technologies as alternatives to those prescribed, resulting in substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability. Note: In determining equivalent facilitation, consideration shall be given to means that provide for the maximum independence of persons with disabilities while presenting the least risk of harm, injury or other hazard to such persons or others.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Escalator
“A moving stairway that moves up and down at an angle to transfer passengers from one level of a station or parking facility to another. Does not include non-passenger escalators used only for freight or by transit staff.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Essential Function
“Part of an employee’s duties that is central to why they were hired. For example, an essential function of a cashier is to take payments and make change. And, an essential function of a pilot is to fly an airplane. Note that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), an employer is never required to eliminate an essential job function, but an employer may need to provide a reasonable accommodation to help a person do the function.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Fundamental job duties of the employment position the individual with a disability holds or desires. The term "essential functions" does not include the marginal functions of the position.
  • A job function may be considered essential for any of several reasons, including but not limited to the following:
    • The function may be essential because the reason the position exists is to perform that function;
    • The function may be essential because of the limited number of employees available among whom the performance of that job function can be distributed; and/or
    • The function may be highly specialized so that the incumbent in the position is hired for his or her expertise or ability to perform the particular function.
  • Evidence of whether a particular function is essential includes, but is not limited to:
    • The employer’s judgment as to which functions are essential;
    • Written job descriptions prepared before advertising or interviewing applicants for the job;
    • The amount of time spent on the job performing the function;
    • The consequences of not requiring the incumbent to perform the function;
    • The terms of a collective bargaining agreement;
    • The work experience of past incumbents in the job; and/or
    • The current work experience of incumbents in similar jobs.”
ADA National Network
EV
Abbreviation (initialism) for Electric Vehicle
EV Charger
Off-board charging equipment used to charge an electric vehicle.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
EV Charging Space
A space intended for charging electric vehicles.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“A space intended for future installation of EV charging equipment and charging of electric vehicles.”—2019 CALGreen, Section 202
EV Connector
A device that, when electrically coupled (conductive or inductive) to an electric vehicle inlet, establishes an electrical connection to the electric vehicle for the purpose of power transfer and information exchange. This device is part of the electric vehicle coupler.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
EV Space
Another term for an EV charging space.
EV Supply Equipment
“The conductors, including the ungrounded, grounded, and equipment grounding conductors and the electric vehicle connectors, attachment plugs, and all other fittings, devices, power outlets, or apparatus installed specifically for the purpose of transferring energy between the premises wiring and he electric vehicle.”—2019 CALGreen, Section 202
Another term for EV Charger
Evacuation
“A reportable evacuation is a condition that occurs when persons depart from transit vehicles or facilities for life safety reasons. Evacuations to a location that may put passengers or patrons in imminent danger (such as controlled rail right-of-way) must also be reported.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
EVCS
Abbreviation (initialism) for Electric Vehicle Charging Station
EVSE
Abbreviation (initialism) for EV Supply Equipment
Exclusive Right-of-Way
“Transit right-of-way (ROW) from which all other motor vehicle and pedestrian traffic, mixed and cross, is excluded.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Exclusive Fixed Guideway
“Synonymous with Fixed Guideway.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Executive Agency
  1. an executive department specified in section 101 of title 5 [Departments of State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security];
  2. a military department specified in section 102 of title 5 [Departments of Army, Navy, Air Force];
  3. an independent establishment as defined in section 104(1) of title 5 [an establishment in the executive branch (other than the United States Postal Service or the Postal Regulatory Commission) which is not an Executive department, military department, Government corporation, or part thereof, or part of an independent establishment; and the Government Accountability Office]; and
  4. a wholly owned Government corporation fully subject to chapter 91 of title 31.”
41 USC §133 – Executive Agency
Existing Building
See existing facility
Existing Facility
A facility in existence on any given date, without regard to whether the facility may also be considered newly constructed or altered under this code.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“A facility in existence on any given date, without regard to whether the facility may also be considered newly constructed or altered under this part.”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Existing ICT
ICT that has been procured, maintained or used on or before January 18, 2018.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Extensible Markup Language
“A simple dialect of SGML intended to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
“A simplified successor to SGML. W3C’s generic language for creating new markup languages. Markup languages (such as HTML) are used to represent documents with a nested, treelike structure. XML is a product of W3C and a trademark of MIT.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Facility
“All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, elements and pedestrian or vehicular routs located on a site. All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, elements, and pedestrian routes and vehicular ways located on a site.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“All or any portion of buildings, structures, sites, complexes, equipment, rolling stock or other conveyances, roads, walks, passageways, parking lots, or other real or personal property, including the site where the building, property, structure, or equipment is located.”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Fail-Safe
“A design practice applied to a system or device such that the result of failure either prohibits the system or device from assuming or maintaining an unsafe state or causes the system or device to assume a state known to be safe regardless of actual prevailing conditions.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
FCC
Abbreviation (initialism) for Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
“The federal agency that oversees laws and regulations related to communications in the United States and US territories. The FCC is responsible for enforcing Title IV of the ADA. It has also established a Disability Rights Office.”—Northeast ADA Center
“The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates interstate and international communications. They set communications standards for television, radio, and internet, including a strict set of quality standards for closed captioning.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Federal Transit Administration
An agency within the Departmnet of Transportation tasked with providing financial and technical assistance to local public transit systems, as well as overseeing safety measures and developing next-generation technology research.
FG
Abbreviation (initialism) for Fixed Guideway mode
Firm Surface
“A firm surface resists deformation by either indentations or particles moving on its surface.”— Advisory 302 General from 2010 ADA Standards
Fixed Guideway
A tranist mode (FG) defined as: “Fixed Guideway is a public transportation facility
  • Using and occupying a separate right-of-way for the exclusive use of public transportation;
  • Using rail;
  • Using a fixed catenary system;
  • For a passenger ferry system;
  • For a bus rapid transit system.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“Any public transportation facility utilizing and occupying a separate right-of-way or rails for the exclusive use of public transportation service including, but not limited to, fixed rail, automated guideway transit, and exclusive facilities for buses and other high-occupancy vehicles; and also means a public transportation facility using a fixed catenary system and right-of-way useable by other forms of transportation.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
Fixed Route Services
“Services provided on a repetitive, fixed schedule basis along a specific route with vehicles stopping to pick up and deliver passengers to specific locations; each fixed route trip serves the same origins and destinations, such as rail and bus (MB); unlike demand responsive (DR) and vanpool (VP) services.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“Service provided on a repetitive, fixed-schedule basis along a specific route with vehicles stopping to pick up and deliver passengers to specific locations; each fixed-route trip serves the same origins and destinations, unlike demand response. Includes route deviation service, where revenue vehicles deviate from fixed routes on a discretionary basis.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from American Public Transportation Association (APTA))
Fixed Route System
“A system of transporting individuals (other than by aircraft), including the provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of transportation service by private entities, including, but not limited to, specified public transportation service, on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
FTA
Abbreviation (initialism) for Federal Transit Administration
Function
“The activity performed or cost center of a transit agency. There are four basic functions for reporting. The four basic functions are:
  1. Vehicle operations;
  2. Vehicle maintenance;
  3. Non-vehicle maintenance;
  4. General administration.
The activities included under each basic function are detailed in Section 5.0 of the Uniform System of Accounts (USOA).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Functional Area
A room, space or area intended or designated for a group of related activities or processes.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Functional Classification
“Designation of a transportation system into classes or systems by the nature of the service they provide in serving travel needs.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Fundamental Alteration
With regards to reasonable modifications, “a change that is so significant to a policy, practice, or procedure that it would change the nature of what is offered. For example, it would be a fundamental alteration for a doctor specializing in foot issues to treat a heart condition.””—Northeast ADA Center
“A modification that is so significant that it alters the essential nature of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations offered. If a public entity can demonstrate that the modification would fundamentally alter the nature of its service, program, or activity, it is not required to make the modification. If a public accommodation (private entity) can demonstrate that a modification would fundamentally alter the nature of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations it provides, it is not required to make the modification.”—ADA National Network
Garage Vertical Core
Aggregate building component consisting of stairs and/or elevators that serve multiple levels of a parking garage
Grade
“The rate of ascent or descent of a roadway, expressed as a percent, or the change in roadway elevation per unit of horizontal length.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Grade (Adjacent Ground Elevation)
The lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, paving or sidewalk within the area between the building and the property line or, when the property line is more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building, between the building and a line 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building. See Health and Safety Code Section 19955.3(d).”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Grade Break
The line where two surface planes with different slopes meet.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Grade Crossing
“An intersection of a roadway and a rail right-of-way that cross each other at the same level (at grade). For street-running operations, each street intersection is considered a grade crossing (excludes driveways and parking lot entrances). Pedestrian crosswalks in stations are also included.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Grade Separation
“A crossing of two roadways, or a roadway and railroad tracks, at different levels that do not physically meet.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Guard or Guardrail
“A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Guardrails
“A safety barrier intended to deflect an errant vehicle back to the roadway, and prevent an errant vehicle from striking a roadside obstacle that is more hazardous than the guardrail itself.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Guidance
“Many agencies that enforce an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) issue informal statements of guidance. These statements do not have the force of law, but provide information about how the agency interprets the ADA.”—ADA National Network
Guideway
“A track or other riding surface (including supporting structure) that supports and physically guides transit vehicles specially designed to travel exclusively on it.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
“The use of public transportation including the buildings and structures dedicated for the operation of transit vehicles such as:
  • At-Grade
    • Ballast (including expressway)
    • In-Street/Embedded
  • Elevated
    • Retained Fill
    • Concrete
    • Steel Viaduct or Bridge
  • Below-Grade
    • Retained Cut
    • Cut-and-Cover Tunnel
    • Bored or Blasted Tunnel
    • Submerged Tube
Guideway does not include passenger stations and transfer facilities, bus (MB) pull-ins or communication systems (e.g., cab signaling and train control).  Also referred to as Guideway Elements.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
GVC
Abbreviation (initialism) for Garage Vertical Core
Handicap
Generally considered outdated and potentially offensive, in the context of accessibility this term refers to a difficulty or disadvantage experienced by a person, typically through differences in physical or sensory abilities. Today, “disability” is considered the more appropriate term when refering to differences in a person’s abilities.
Handrail
“A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.—2019 CBC, Section 202
Hardware
“A tangible device, equipment, or physical component of ICT, such as telephones, computers, multifunction copy machines, and keyboards.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
HCO
Abbreviation (initialism) for Hearing Carry-Over
Headway
“The time separation between two trains, both traveling in the same direction on the same guideway, measured from the time the head end of the leading train passes a given reference point to the time the head end of the train immediately following passes the same reference point.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
“The time interval between vehicles moving in the same direction on a particular route.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“Average time between arrivals of transit vehicles.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners
Hearing Carry-Over
“A call type method used by people who have difficulty speaking, but have no difficulty hearing voice. A less common call type than Voice Carry-Over (VCO), the HCO allows a speech-impaired person to type messages on a TTY (which are voiced by the relay operator) and then pick up the handset and listen to the other person’s response.”—ADA National Network
Heavy Rail
A tranist mode (HR) defined as: “A transit mode that is an electric railway with the capacity for a heavy volume of traffic. It is characterized by:
  • High speed and rapid acceleration passenger rail cars operating singly or in multi-car trains on fixed rails
  • Separate rights-of-way (ROW) from which all other vehicular and foot traffic are excluded
  • Sophisticated signaling, and
  • High platform loading.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“High-speed, passenger rail cars operating singly or in trains of two or more cars on fixed rails in separate rights-of-way from which all other vehicular and foot traffic are excluded. Also known as "rapid rail."”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
Heavy Rail Passenger Cars
Vehicle type (HR) consisting of “Rail cars with:
  • Motive capability
  • Driven by electric power taken from overhead lines or third rails
  • Configured for passenger traffic
  • Usually operated on exclusive right-of-way (ROW).”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Highway
(Street or Road) “A general term for denoting public way for purposes of travel, including the entire area within the ROW.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
HR
Abbreviation (initialism) for Heavy Rail mode
Abbreviation (initialism) for Heavy Rail Passenger Cars vehicle type
HTML
Abbreviation (initialism) for Hypertext Markup Language.
HUD
Abbreviation (initialism) for United States Department of Labor
“Some text or a graphic in an electronic document that can be activated to display another document or trigger an action.”—Wiktionary
(by extension) The URL or other address that defines a hyperlink’s target or function.”—Wiktionary
“A link that is intended primarily for presentation to a human user.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Hypertext
“Digital text in which the reader may navigate related information through embedded hyperlinks.”—Wiktionary
Text which is not constrained to be linear.  Nonsequential writing; Ted Nelson’s term [coined circa 1965] for a medium that includes links. Nowadays it includes other media apart from text and is sometimes called hypermedia.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Hypertext Markup Language
“A computer language for representing the contents of a page of hypertext; the language that most Web pages are currently written in.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
“A simple markup language used to create hypertext documents that are portable from one platform to another. HTML documents are SGML documents with generic semantics that are appropriate for representing information from a wide range of applications.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
ICC
“The International Code Council is the leading global source of model codes and standards and building safety solutions that include product evaluation, accreditation, technology, training, and certification. The Code Council’s codes, standards, and solutions are used to ensure safe, affordable, and sustainable communities and buildings worldwide.”—https://www.iccsafe.org/about/who-we-are/
ICT
Abbreviation (initialism for information and communication technology
Impairment
“A physical impairment is a physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the body systems. A mental impairment is any mental or psychological disorder.”—ADA National Network
“Physical or mental impairment includes, but is not limited to, contagious and noncontagious diseases and conditions such as the following: orthopedic, visual, speech and hearing impairments, and cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, intellectual disability, emotional illness, dyslexia and other specific learning disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (whether symptomatic or asymptomatic), tuberculosis, drug addiction, and alcoholism.”—Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.105 Definition of "Disability.")
See also mental impairment and physical impairment
Individual with a Disability
“A person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual or a record of such an impairment or is regarded as having such an impairment.”—ADA National Network
A person who has a disability. The term "individual with a disability" does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a public entity or private entity acts on the basis of such use.
See also Qualified Individual with a Disability
Information and Communication Technology
Information technology and other equipment, systems, technologies, or processes, for which the principal function is the creation, manipulation, storage, display, receipt, or transmission of electronic data and information, as well as any associated content. Examples of ICT include, but are not limited to: computers and peripheral equipment; information kiosks and transaction machines; telecommunications equipment; customer premises equipment; multifunction office machines; software; applications; Web sites; videos; and, electronic documents.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
“Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is any equipment or system [used] to create, convert, duplicate or access information and data.”—EPA "Frequent Questions about Section 508"
Information Technology
“Any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information. The term information technology includes computers, ancillary equipment, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources.”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
“Shall have the same meaning as the term "information technology" set forth in 40 U.S.C. 11101(6).”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
“With respect to an executive agency,
  1. means any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, used in the automatic acquisition, storage, analysis, evaluation, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information by the executive agency, if the equipment is used by the executive agency directly or is used by a contractor under a contract with the executive agency that requires the use—
    1. of that equipment; or
    2. of that equipment to a significant extent in the performance of a service or the furnishing of a product.
  2. includes computers, ancillary equipment (including imaging peripherals, input, output, and storage devices necessary for security and surveillance), peripheral equipment designed to be controlled by the central processing unit of a computer, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources; but
  3. does not include any equipment acquired by a federal contractor incidental to a federal contract.”
40 USC § 11101 Definitions
Initialism
An abbreviation that is pronounced one letter at a time, such as “FBI” or “DVD”; some initialisms can be read as acronyms, such as “ASAP” (traditionally ˌä-ˌes-ˌā-ˈpē or /ˌeɪ.ɛs.eɪˈpi/ as an initialism, but now often ˈā-ˌsap or /ˈeɪˑsæp/ as an acronym)
Interactive Process
“An informal dialogue between the employer and employee used to identify the precise limitations resulting from the disability and determine potential reasonable accommodations that could overcome those limitations.”—ADA National Network
Interactive Transcript
“Each word of an interactive transcript behaves like an individual link that, when clicked on, leads directly to the exact point in the video when it’s spoken. Because of this feature, they are also known as time-synchronized transcripts. Interactive transcripts create an alternative way for people to interact with content, allowing users to easily search a transcript for key words and topics.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Intermodal
“Those issues or activities which involve or affect more than one mode of transportation, including transportation connections, choices, cooperation and coordination of various modes. Also know as "multimodal."”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from American Public Transportation Association (APTA))
Intermodal Transit Facility
An OCTA facility that provides airport users to pick-up and drop off passengers, park their cars, check-in, and get to their flights by taking the APM
International Symbol of Accessibility
The symbol adopted by Rehabilitation International’s 11th World Congress for the purpose of indicating that buildings and facilities are accessible to persons with disabilities.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
ISA
Abbreviation (initialism or acronym) for International Symbol of Accessibility. Usually read as an initialism, but sometimes read as “ee-sah” (ˈēsə or /iːsa/) as an acronym.
ITF
Abbreviation (initialism) for Intermodal Transit Facility
ITF West or ITF-West
A separate LAMP project consisting of a long-term parking garage located north of 96th Street between Sepulveda Boulevard and Airport Boulevard.
“Los Angeles International Airport’s (LAX) new approximately 4,300 stall parking structure … [that] will provide drop-off/pick-up locations and short and long-term parking options. … The ITF-West will feature meet & greet space, valet parking, the potential for up to 5,000 square feet of concession space, Wi-Fi, and direct connection to an APM station. … The 1.7 million square foot facility will also house Los Angeles World Airport’s (LAWA) Security & Badging Office (SBO), which is currently located off World Way West and Pershing Avenue.”—LAWA Intermodal Transportation Facility (ITF - West) (Official Site)
JavaScript
“A programming language that allows for complex and interactive features on webpages. Along with HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of three current standard web technologies and allows things like dynamically updated content and interactive maps, and responds to user actions such as mouse clicks, pointer movements, and key presses.”—General Services Administration (GSA) Glossary of Section 508 Terms
Joystick
“An input controller that people can use to control wheelchairs, computers, and other devices.”—Accessibility.com Glossary (J)
Keyboard
“A hardware device (or logical equivalent) consisting of a number of mechanical buttons (keys) that the user presses to input characters to a computer. Note that a logical keyboard may provide a representation of keys (e.g., on-screen keyboard) or it may not (e.g., voice recognition).”—Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) via W3C Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI (Printable) Glossary
“A set of systematically arranged alphanumeric keys or a control that generates alphanumeric input by which a machine or device is operated. A keyboard includes tactilely discernible keys used in conjunction with the alphanumeric keys if their function maps to keys on the keyboard interfaces.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Keyboard Equivalents
“Keys or key combinations that provide access to keyboard functions that are usually activated by a pointing device, voice input, or other input or control mechanisms/devices.”—Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) via W3C Web Accessibility Initiative, WAI (Printable) Glossary
LABC
Abbreviation (initialism) for Los Angeles Building Code
Label
Text, or a component with a text alternative, that is presented to a user to identify content. A label is presented to all users, whereas a name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology. In many cases, the name and the label are the same.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
LAMP
Abbreviation (acronym) for Landside Access Modernization Program
Landside Access Modernization Program
A $5.5 billion LAWA project to modernize LAX consisting of “ five major elements: a 2.25-mile Automated People Mover (APM) that will connect three on-airport stations to Metro Rail and transit services; a Consolidated Rent-A-Car (ConRAC) Facility; two Intermodal Transportation Facilities for additional parking, ground transportation services, and meeter-greeter activities; and roadway improvements.”—Excerpt from The Landside Access Modernization Program Will Transform LAX at https://www.discoverlosangeles.com/business-services/the-landside-access-modernization-program-will-transform-lax
LAWA
Abbreviation (acronym) for Los Angeles World Airports
LAX
Abbreviation (initialism) for Los Angeles International Airport
Light Rail
“A streetcar-type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights of way, or exclusive rights of way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level boarding.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
A tranist mode (LR) defined as: “A transit mode that typically is an electric railway with a light volume traffic capacity compared to heavy rail (HR). It is characterized by:
  • Passenger rail cars operating singly (or in short, usually two car, trains) on fixed rails in shared or exclusive right-of-way (ROW);
  • Low or high platform loading; and
  • Vehicle power drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“Lightweight passenger rail cars operating singly (or in short, usually two-car, trains) on fixed rails in right-of-way that is not separated from other traffic for much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph. Also known as "streetcar," "tramway," or "trolley car."”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
Light Rail Vehicles
Vehicle type (LR) consisting of “Rail cars with:
  • Motive capability;
  • Usually driven by electric power taken from overhead lines;
  • Configured for passenger traffic; and
  • Usually operating on exclusive rights-of-way (ROW).”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“A reference from one document to another (external link), or from one location in the same document to another (internal link), that can be followed efficiently using a computer. The unit of connection in hypertext.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Local Government
“Includes a political subdivision of a state; an authority of at least one state or political subdivision of a state; an Indian tribe; or a public corporation, board, or commission established under the laws of the state.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Locomotive
“A self-propelled unit of rail equipment designed primarily for moving (pushing or pulling) passenger cars. It does not include self-propelled passenger cars.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Los Angeles Building Code
Local amendments to the California Building Code adopted and enforced by the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles International Airport
The primary passenger airport in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Los Angeles World Airports
The airport authority and branch (department) of the City of Los Angeles responsible for operating Los Angeles International Airport and Van Nuys Airport
LR
Abbreviation (initialism) for Light Rail mode
Abbreviation (initialism) for Light Rail Vehicles vehicle type
Machine Readable
“When used with respect to data, means data in a format that can be easily processed by a computer without human intervention while ensuring no semantic meaning is lost.”—44 USC §3502 Definitions
Main (Track)
“A track which is used for through trains operating between stations and terminals as distinguished from a siding which branches from a main line track and is of limited length.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
See also Mainline
Mainline
“Primary rail over which rail transit vehicles travel between stations; it excludes:
  • Yard, and
  • Siding track.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
See also Main (Track)
Maintenance Buildings
“Facilities where maintenance activities are conducted including garages, shops (e.g., body, paint, machine) and operations centers (see Vehicle Maintenance (041) function). Include in maintenance buildings, equipment that enhances the maintenance function, for example: bus (MB) diagnostic equipment. Do not include information systems such as computers that are used to process maintenance data.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Maintenance Facility
“Maintenance facility where mechanics, machinists, and other maintenance personnel perform preventative maintenance, daily service and inspection, and/or corrective maintenance activities on revenue vehicles to keep them in-service.  Facilities generally contain maintenance bays, built-in or portable lifts and/or inspection pits, fuel pump islands, fuel storage tanks, bus wash systems, and brake testing lanes.  Personnel inspect, repair, or replace some, but not all, vehicle components during the following activities:
  • Clean interiors
  • Maintain cameras
  • Fill/replace fluids and lubricants
  • Replace filters
  • Replace/repair tires
  • Inspect suspension and brakes
  • Inspect batteries, wheelchair lifts, and ramps
  • Degrease engines
  • Perform minor body repairs and painting
Revenue vehicles may be stored overnight or between being placed into revenue service.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Major Life Activity
“Something significant that a person does in their day-to-day life. The ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) describes a major life activity as follows:  "Major life activities include, but are not limited to, caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, and working … it also includes the operation of a major bodily function, including but not limited to, functions of the immune system, normal cell growth, digestive, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain, respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, and reproductive functions."”—Northeast ADA Center
Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices
“A document issued by the Federal Highway Administration of the United States Department of Transportation to specify the standards by which traffic signs, road surface markings, and signals are designed, installed, and used.”—Wikipedia
“The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, approved by the Federal Highway Administration, is the national standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street, highway, or bicycle trail open to public travel in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 109(d) and 402(a). For the purpose of the MUTCD applicability, "open to public travel" includes toll roads and roads within shopping centers, airports, sports arenas, and other similar business and/or recreation facilities that are privately owned but where the public is allowed to travel without access restrictions. Except for gated toll roads, roads within private gated properties where access is restricted at all times are not included in this definition.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Marginal Function
“A job-related task that is not an essential aspect of the job. Because this task is non-essential, it could be removed from an employee’s job responsibilities if the employee were unable to perform the task due to a disability. In fact, removing a marginal function could be a reasonable accommodation. For example, consider a person who works as a housekeeper at a hotel. This person can walk well but cannot walk up and down stairs. If a small part of the job is to clean the stairwell, the hotel could reassign that responsibility to another housekeeping staff member as a reasonable accommodation. Marginal functions are different from essential functions—essential functions are tasks that are core aspects of a job.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Duties of a job that are not absolutely necessary for the job being performed.”—ADA National Network
Marked Crossing
A crosswalk or other identified path intended for pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Markup
“The notation that is used to indicate the meaning of the elements in an electronic document, or to dictate how text should be displayed.”—Wiktionary
“Markup takes the form of start-tags, end-tags, empty-element tags, entity references, character references, comments, CDATA section delimiters, document type declarations, processing instructions, XML declarations, text declarations, and any white space that is at the top level of the document entity (that is, outside the document element and not inside any other markup).”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Markup Language
“A computer language using markup.”—Wiktionary
Mass Transportation
“Synonymous term with public transportation.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
MB
Abbreviation (initialism) for Bus mode (derived from “municipal bus”)
Median
“The area between two roadways of a divided highway measured from edge of traveled way to edge of traveled way, excluding turn lanes. The median width may be different between intersections, interchanges, and opposite approaches of the same intersection.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Mental Impairment
“Any mental or psychological disorder such as intellectual disability, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disability.”—Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.105 Definition of "Disability.")
See also impairment
Menu
“A set of selectable options.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
MG
Abbreviation (initialism) for Monorail and Automated Guideway modes
Mitigating Measures
“A measure utilized (such as medication or glasses) that eliminates or reduces the symptoms of an impairment so it is no longer substantially limiting.”—ADA National Network
Mode
“A system for carrying transit passengers described by specific right-of-way (ROW), technology and operational features.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Monorail/Automated Guideway
A tranist mode (MG) consisting of “An electrically-powered mode of transit operating in an exclusive guideway or over relatively short distances. The service is characterized by either monorail systems with human-operated vehicles straddling a single guideway or by people-mover systems with automated operation.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Multi-Modal Stations
“A passenger station that serves more than one mode of transit, possibly including modes not included in NTD.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
See also intermodal transit facility
MUTCD
Abbreviation (acronym or initialism) for Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Can be read as “mutt-see-dee” (ˈmət-ˌsē-ˈdē or /mʌt.siːˀdiːˀ/) as a semi-acronym or read as an initialism.
N/A
Abbreviation (initialism) for not applicable or not available
Name
Text by which software can identify a component to the user. A name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology, whereas a label is presented to all users. In many cases, the label and the name are the same. Name is unrelated to the name attribute in HTML.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
NC
Abbreviation (initialism) for noncompliant
NFPA
Abbreviation (initialism) for National Fire Protection Association. “The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a global self-funded nonprofit organization, established in 1896, devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards. … NFPA delivers information and knowledge through more than 300 consensus codes and standards, research, training, education, outreach and advocacy; and by partnering with others who share an interest in furthering our mission.”—https://www.nfpa.org/About-NFPA
National Transit Database
“A reporting system that collects public transportation financial and operating information.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
NFG
Abbreviation (initialism) for Non-Fixed Guideway
Non-exclusive right-of-way
“Rail right-of-way (ROW) over which motor vehicle and/or pedestrian traffic moving in the same direction or cross directions may pass.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Non-Fixed Guideway
“Mixed traffic right-of-way (ROW). For Federal funding purposes, excludes trolleybus (TB) and ferryboat (FB) modes, which are considered fixed guideway (FG).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Non-Fixed Route
“Service that is not provided on a repetitive, fixed-schedule basis along a specific route to specific locations. Demand response is the only non-fixed-route mode.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from American Public Transportation Association (APTA))
Non-Rail Modes
“Transit modes whose vehicles typically operate on roadways - streets, highways or expressways, but may also operate on waterways (ferryboat (FB)) or via aerial cable (aerial tramways (TR)). Vehicles are typically powered by motors onboard the vehicle, with one exception, aerial tramway (TR) vehicles which are electrically powered by a motor not onboard the vehicle in order to pull the vehicle via an overhead cable. NTD recognizes eight non-rail modes:
  1. Aerial Tramway (TR)
  2. Bus (MB)
  3. Bus rapid transit (RB)
  4. Commuter bus (CB)
  5. Demand Response (DR)
  6. Demand taxi (DT)
  7. Ferryboat (FB)
  8. Jitney (JT)
  9. Publico (PB)
  10. Trolleybus (TB), and
  11. Vanpool (VP).”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
See also Rail Modes
Non-Web Document
“A document that is not: Web page, embedded in a Web page, or used in the rendering or functioning of Web pages.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Non-Web Software
Software that is not: a Web page, not embedded in a Web page, and not used in the rendering or functioning of Web pages.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
NTD
Abbreviation (initialism) for National Transit Database
O&M
Abbreviation (initialism) for Operations and Maintenance
OCTA
Abbreviation (initialism or acronym) for Outside of the CTA. Usually read as an initialism but can be read as “ock-tah” (ˈäk-tə or /ˈɑktə/) as an acronym.
OPDMD
Abbreviation (initialism) for Other Power-driven Mobility Device
Operable Controls
“A component of a product that requires physical contact for normal operation. Operable controls include, but are not limited to, mechanically operated controls, input and output trays, card slots, keyboards, or keypads.”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
Operable Part
A component of an element used to insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or adjust the element.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Hardware-based user controls for activating, deactivating, or adjusting ICT.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Operates
“With respect to a fixed route or demand responsive system, the provision of transportation service by a public or private entity itself or by a person under a contractual or other arrangement or relationship with the entity.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
Other Power-driven Mobility Device
“Any mobility device powered by batteries, fuel, or other engines—whether or not designed primarily for use by individuals with mobility disabilities—that is used by individuals with mobility disabilities for the purpose of locomotion, including golf cars, electronic personal assistance mobility devices, such as the Segway® PT, or any mobility device designed to operate in areas without defined pedestrian routes, but that is not a wheelchair within the meaning of this section.”—ADA Action Guide
“Any mobility device powered by batteries, fuel, or other engines—whether or not designed primarily for use by individuals with mobility disabilities—that is used by individuals with mobility disabilities for the purpose of locomotion, including golf cars, electronic personal assistance mobility devices (EPAMDs), such as the Segway® PT, or any mobility device designed to operate in areas without defined pedestrian routes, but that is not a wheelchair within the meaning of this section. This definition does not apply to Federal wilderness areas; wheelchairs in such areas are defined in section 508(c)(2) of the ADA, 42 U.S.C. 12207(c)(2).”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
See wheelchair for contrasting definition.
Passenger
“An individual on board, boarding, or alighting from a revenue transit vehicle. Excludes operators, transit employees and contractors.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Passenger and Parking Facility Types
Passenger stations are significant structures with a separate right-of-way (ROW). Therefore, a street stop or passenger shelter does not constitute a passenger station. Passenger stations include all transportation, transit or transfer centers, park-and-ride facilities, and transit malls if they have an enclosed structure (building) for passengers for items such as ticketing, information, restrooms, concessions, and telephones.  When CC, LR, SR, MB, RB, CB, or TB service is operated in mixed traffic, a stop on a street or in a median is not a station if the stop does not have a separate, enclosed building. Open shelters, canopies, lighting, signage, or ramps for accessibility alone are not enough to establish a passenger station.  Parking facilities include park-and-ride lots as well as parking garages. Note that passenger and parking facilities are often collectively referenced as "passenger facilities." Parking facilities are those immediately adjacent to passenger facilities.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Passenger Car
“A unit of rolling rail equipment that provides transportation and seating and standing room for the general public. It includes self-propelled cars.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Passenger Compartment
“If a vehicle is divided into separate areas between which passengers are either unable or not permitted to move, each such area is defined as a passenger compartment. If the vehicle is not so divided, then the entire vehicle is the passenger compartment.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
Passenger Stations
“A passenger boarding / deboarding facility with a platform, which may include:
  • Stairs
  • Elevators
  • Escalators
  • Passenger controls (e.g., faregates or turnstiles)
  • Canopies
  • Wind shelters
  • Lighting
  • Signs
  • Buildings with a waiting room, ticket office or machines, restrooms, or concessions.
Includes all fixed guideway (FG) passenger facilities (except for on-street cable car (CC) and light rail (LR) stops), including busway passenger facilities; underground, at grade, and elevated rail stations; and ferryboat (FB) terminals. Includes transportation/transit/transfer centers, park-and-ride facilities, and transit malls with the above components, including those only utilized by motor buses (MB).  Does not include stops (which are typically on-street locations at the curb or in a median, sometimes with a shelter, signs, or lighting) for:
  • Bus (MB)
  • Light rail (LR)
  • Cable car (CC)”

National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Path of Travel
An identifiable accessible route within an existing site, building or facility by means of which a particular area may be approached, entered and exited, and which connects a particular area with an exterior approach (including sidewalks, streets and parking areas), an entrance to the facility, and other parts of the facility. When alterations, structural repairs or additions are made to existing buildings or facilities, the term “path of travel” also includes the toilet and bathing facilities, telephones, drinking fountains and signs serving the area of work.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Pathway
“A general term denoting a public way for purposes of travel by authorized users outside the traveled way and physically separated from the roadway by an open space or barrier and either within the highway ROW or within an independent alignment. Pathways include shared-use paths but do not include sidewalks along the roadway traveled way.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Patron
“An individual on transit property such as a bus stop or transit facility.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Pavement Markings
“Markings set into the surface of, applied upon, or attached to the pavement for regulating, warning, or guiding traffic.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
PDF
Abbreviation (initialism) and file extension for Portable Document Format
Pedestrian
An individual who moves in walking areas with or without the use of walking assistive devices such as crutches, leg braces, wheelchairs, white cane, service animal, etc.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Pedestrian Access Route
“A continuous and unobstructed path of travel provided for pedestrians with disabilities within or coinciding with a pedestrian circulation path.”—Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG)
Pedestrian Circulation Path
“A prepared exterior or inerior surface provided for pedestrian travel in the public right-of-way.”—Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG)
Pedestrian Walkway
“A walkway used exclusively as a pedestrian trafficway.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Pedestrian Way
A route by which a pedestrian may pass.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Permanent
Facilities which, are intended to be used for periods longer than those designated in this code unde the definition of “Temporary.””—2019 CBC, Section 202
Person-first Language
“A way to refer to someone who has a disability. With person-first language, the person is mentioned before their disability. For example, "a woman who is hard-of-hearing" is person-first language. In contrast, "a hard-of-hearing woman" is not person-first language. Person-first language conveys the idea that the person as a whole is more important than just their disability. Also, historically, people with disabilities have often been excluded or segregated from society. Person-first language may help to address this historical barrier. Note that if a person prefers to be referred to without person-first language (such as "a Deaf man"), you should follow that preference.”—Northeast ADA Center
Personal Services and Devices
“Personal or individually prescribed devices, such as wheelchairs, prescription eyeglasses, or hearing aids, or services of a personal nature, such as assistance in eating, toileting, or dressing. If personal services or devices are customarily provided to the individuals served by a public entity, such as a hospital or nursing home, then these personal services should also be provided to individuals with disabilities.”—ADA Action Guide
“Public entities and public accommodations are not required to provide personal services or personal devices. Examples of personal devices that entities are not required to provide include wheelchairs, prescription eyeglasses, and hearing aids. Personal assistance service need not be provided in activities such as eating, toileting, and dressing unless the service is typically provided by the entity.”—ADA National Network
Physical Accessibility
“Physical accessibility makes it possible for people to enter a building and use its features. With adequate physical accessibility, everyone—including, for example, a person using a wheelchair, walker, or other mobility aid—is able to enter the building and access all aspects of the building that anyone else can access. Curb cuts, ramps, elevators, accessible bathrooms, Braille on signs, and much more all play a role in physical accessibility. The 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design includes technical specifications for providing physical accessibility.”—Northeast ADA Center
Physical Impairment
“Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more body systems, such as: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, immune, circulatory, hemic, lymphatic, skin, and endocrine.”—Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.105 Definition of "Disability.")
See also impairment
PL
Abbreviation (initialism) for Public Law
Place of Public Accommodation
A facility operated by a private entity whose operations affect commerce and fall within at least one of the following categories:

(4) An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall, or other place of public gathering;

(7) A terminal, depot, or other station used for specified public transportation;

(14) An office building; and
(15) A public curb or sidewalk.
”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“A facility operated by a private entity whose operations affect commerce and fall within at least one of the following categories –
  1. Place of lodging, except for an establishment located within a facility that contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that actually is occupied by the proprietor of the establishment as the residence of the proprietor. For purposes of this part, a facility is a "place of lodging" if it is –
    1. An inn, hotel, or motel; or
    2. A facility that –
      1. Provides guest rooms for sleeping for stays that primarily are short-term in nature (generally 30 days or less) where the occupant does not have the right to return to a specific room or unit after the conclusion of his or her stay; and
      2. Provides guest rooms under conditions and with amenities similar to a hotel, motel, or inn, including the following –
        1. On– or off-site management and reservations service;
        2. Rooms available on a walk-up or call-in basis;
        3. Availability of housekeeping or linen service; and
        4. Acceptance of reservations for a guest room type without guaranteeing a particular unit or room until check-in, and without a prior lease or security deposit.
  2. A restaurant, bar, or other establishment serving food or drink;
  3. A motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium, or other place of exhibition or entertainment;
  4. An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall, or other place of public gathering;
  5. A bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, shopping center, or other sales or rental establishment;
  6. A laundromat, dry-cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, pharmacy, insurance office, professional office of a health care provider, hospital, or other service establishment;
  7. A terminal, depot, or other station used for specified public transportation;
  8. A museum, library, gallery, or other place of public display or collection;
  9. A park, zoo, amusement park, or other place of recreation;
  10. A nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate, or postgraduate private school, or other place of education;
  11. A day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shelter, food bank, adoption agency, or other social service center establishment; and
  12. A gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course, or other place of exercise or recreation.”
Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Platform
“A horizontal surface raised above the level of the adjacent area, such as a boarding and alighting area alongside rail tracks.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Platform Accessibility Services
“Services provided by a platform enabling interoperability with assistive technology. Examples are Application Programming Interfaces (API) and the Document Object Model (DOM).”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Platform Software
Software that interacts with hardware or provides services for other software. Platform software may run or host other software, and may isolate them from underlying software or hardware layers. A single software component may have both platform and non-platform aspects. Examples of platforms are: desktop operating systems; embedded operating systems, including mobile systems; Web browsers; plug-ins to Web browsers that render a particular media or format; and sets of components that allow other applications to execute, such as applications which support macros or scripting.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Portable Document Format
A file format developed by Adobe in 1993 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.—Wikipedia
Primary Function Areas
“Areas housing the major activities for which a facility was intended.”—ADA National Network
Principles of Universal Design
“The Principles of Universal Design were developed by The Center for Universal Design in collaboration with a consortium of universal design researchers and practitioners from across the United States. Funding for the project was provided by the U.S. Department of Education’s National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.”—The Center for Universal Design (1997). The Principles of Universal Design, Version 2.0. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, Copyright © 1997 NC State University, The Center for Universal Design.
  1. Equitable Use: The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities.
  2. Flexibility in Use: The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.
  3. Simple and Intuitive Use: Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.
  4. Perceptible Information: The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities.
  5. Tolerance for Error: The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions.
  6. Low Physical Effort: The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.
  7. Size and Space for Approach and Use: Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility.
Private Building or Facility
A place of public accommodation or a commercial building or facility subject ot Chapter 1, Section 1.9.1.2.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Private Club
“A private club or establishment exempted from coverage under title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000a(e)).”— Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Private Entity
“Any entity other than a public entity.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
“A person or entity other than a public entity.”— Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Private For-Profit Provider
“A nonpublic entity that provides public transportation services. For-profit entities exist primarily to generate a profit, (i.e., a surplus of revenues over expenditures).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Private Modes
“A non-public form of transportation typically operated by Private For-profit providers. Examples of these private modes include airports, Amtrak, intercity bus, etc.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Private Non-profit Provider
“A nonpublic entity with a tax-free status that provides public transportation services. Nonprofit entities exist to provide a particular service (e.g., public transportation) to the community. Nonprofit refers to a type of business – one that is organized under rules that forbid the distribution of profits to owners. Profit refers to a surplus of revenues over expenditures.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Private Rail Transit
“A passenger facility building which is shared between a transit mode and an Amtrak passenger rail service. Shared space may include platforms, passenger waiting areas and ticket vending locations.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Program Access
“A person with a disability can participate in a program or service offered by a public entity (state or local government), so long as there is some reasonable way to make it happen. One reasonable way would be to move a class, meeting, or other offering to an accessible location, if one is needed. (This is somewhat different from the type of access required by the ADA in Title III for public accommodations.)”—Northeast ADA Center
“A public entity’s services, programs, or activities, when viewed in their entirety, must be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.”—ADA National Network
Program Accessibility
“A public entity’s services, programs, or activities, when viewed in their entirety, must be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. This standard, known as "program accessibility," applies to all existing facilities of a public entity. Public entities, however, are not necessarily required to make each of their existing facilities accessible.”—ADA Action Guide
Programmatically Determinable
“Ability to be determined by software from author-supplied data that is provided in a way that different user agents, including assistive technologies, can extract and present the information to users in different modalities.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
PT
Abbreviation (initialism) for Purchased Transportation
Public Accommodation
“A business or nonprofit organization open to the public where commerce takes place. Commerce happens when things are bought or sold, or when services are bought or sold.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Private entities that own, operate, lease, or lease to places of public accommodation. Places of public accommodation include places such as restaurants, hotels, theaters, convention centers, retail stores, shopping centers, dry cleaners, laundromats, pharmacies, doctors’ offices, hospitals, museums, libraries, parks, zoos, amusement parks, private schools, day care centers, health spas, and bowling alleys.”—ADA National Network
“A private entity that owns, leases (or leases to), or operates a place of public accommodation.”— Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Public Agency Transit System
“A public entity that provides public transportation services. It may be a state or local government, or any department, special purpose district (e.g. transit or transportation district), authority or other instrumentality of one or more state or local governments (e.g., joint powers agency).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Public Building or Facility
A building or facility or portion of a building or facility designed, construced, or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public entity subject to Chapter 1, Section 1.9.1.1.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“In Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a public facility is a facility that is owned, operated, or maintained by a public entity. Examples include public schools, municipal buildings and parking lots, borough halls, county courthouses, and much more.”—Northeast ADA Center
Public Entity
Any state or local government; any department, agency, special-purpose district, or other instrumentality of a state or local government.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“(1) Any state or local government; (2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of one or more state or local governments; and (3) The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) and any commuter authority.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
“Any of the following three categories (49CFR37):
  • Any state or local government;
  • Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of one or more state or local governments; and
  • The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) and any commuter authority.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“(1) Any State or local government; (2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or States or local government; and (3) The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, and any commuter authority (as defined in section 103(8) of the Rail Passenger Service Act).”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Public Facing
Content made available by an agency to members of the general public. Examples include, but are not limited to, an agency Web site, blog post, or social media pages.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Public Right-of-Way
“Public land or property, usually in interconnected corridors, that is acquired for or dedicated to transportation purposes.”—Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG)
Public Transit
“Another name for "Public Transportation," "Mass Transit," or "Transit." Includes transportation by bus, or rail, or other conveyance, publicly owned, providing to the general public or special service (but not including school buses) on a regular and continuing basis.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (adapted from American Public Transportation Association (APTA) and FTA)
Public Transportation
“As defined in the Federal Transit Act, "transportation by a conveyance that provides regular and continuing general or special transportation to the public, but does not include school bus, charter, or intercity bus transportation or intercity passenger rail transportation provided by the entity described in chapter 243 (or a successor to such entity)."
Notes: (1) Passenger rail transportation refers to Amtrak. (2) This definition does not affect the eligibility of intercity bus service under the Section 5311 Other Than Urbanized Area (Rural) Formula Program. (3) The intercity bus and intercity rail (Amtrak) portion of Intermodal terminals is however an eligible capital cost.
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Public Use
Interior or exterior rooms, spaces or elements that are made available to the public. Public use may be provided at a building or facility that is privately or publicly owned. …”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Purchased Transportation (PT)
“Transportation service provided to a public transit agency or governmental unit from a public or private transportation provider based on a written contract. The provider is obligated in advance to operate public transportation services for a public transit agency or governmental unit for a specific monetary consideration, using its own employees to operate revenue vehicles. Purchased transportation (PT) does not include:
  • Franchising;
  • Licensing operations;
  • Management services;
  • Cooperative agreements; or
  • Private conventional bus service.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
PWD
Abbreviation (initialism) for person with disability and generally having the same meaning as Individual with a Disability or Qualified Individual with a Disability.
QPM
Abbreviation (initialism) for Quality Program Manager
Qualified Individual with a Disability
“An individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable modifications to rules, policies, or practices, the removal of architectural, communication, or transportation barriers, or the provision of auxiliary aids and services, meets the essential eligibility requirements for the receipt of services or the participation in programs or activities provided by a public entity.”—ADA Action Guide
“An individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable modifications to rules, policies, or practices, the removal of architectural, communication, or transportation barriers, or the provision of auxiliary aids and services, meets the essential eligibility requirements for the receipt of services or the participation in programs or activities provided by a public entity.”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions)
See also Individual with a Disability
Qualified Interpreter
“An interpreter who, via a video remote interpreting service or an on-site appearance, is able to interpret effectively, accurately, and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary. Qualified interpreters include, for example, sign language interpreters, oral transliterators, and cued-language transliterators.”—ADA Action Guide
Quality
“A subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition. In technical usage, quality can have two meanings: 1) the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; 2) a product or service free of deficiencies. According to Joseph Juran, quality means "fitness for use"; according to Philip Crosby, it means "conformance to requirements."”—https://asq.org/quality-resources/quality-glossary/q
Quality Assurance
“One definition of quality assurance is: all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements for quality.”—https://asq.org/quality-resources/quality-glossary/q
Often used interchangeably with Quality Control
Quality Control
“One definition for quality control is: the operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.”—https://asq.org/quality-resources/quality-glossary/q
Often used interchangeably with Quality Assurance
Quality Program Manager
The Quality Program Manager is the individual retained by the Developer with the authority and responsibility for quality management, quality system related activities for all Work, including the establishment and maintenance of and compliance with the quality management plan or equivalent report/submittal.
Rail Modes
“Transit modes whose vehicles travel along fixed rails - bars of rolled steel - forming a track. The vehicles are usually electrically propelled typically through motors onboard the vehicles, but motors may also be at a central location not onboard the vehicles to pull the vehicles by cables (cable car (CC), inclined plane (IP)). For commuter rail (CR), vehicles may be self-propelled or may be drawn by a locomotive. NTD recognizes nine rail modes:National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
See also Non-Rail Modes
Rail Transit Vehicle
“Any rolling stock used on a rail fixed guideway public transportation system, including but not limited to passenger and maintenance vehicles.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Rapid Rail
“A subway-type transit vehicle railway operated on exclusive private rights of way with high level platform stations. Rapid rail also may operate on elevated or at grade level track separated from other traffic.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
RB
Abbreviation (initialism) for Bus Rapid Transit mode
Readily Achievable
“Easily accomplished and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense. Public accommodations are required to remove barriers when it is readily achievable to do so.”—ADA National Network
“Easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action is readily achievable factors to be considered include –
  1. The nature and cost of the action needed under this part;
  2. The overall financial resources of the site or sites involved in the action; the number of persons employed at the site; the effect on expenses and resources; legitimate safety requirements that are necessary for safe operation, including crime prevention measures; or the impact otherwise of the action upon the operation of the site;
  3. The geographic separateness, and the administrative or fiscal relationship of the site or sites in question to any parent corporation or entity;
  4. If applicable, the overall financial resources of any parent corporation or entity; the overall size of the parent corporation or entity with respect to the number of its employees; the number, type, and location of its facilities; and
  5. If applicable, the type of operation or operations of any parent corporation or entity, including the composition, structure, and functions of the workforce of the parent corporation or entity.”
Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Real-Time Text
“Communications using the transmission of text by which characters are transmitted by a terminal as they are typed. Real-time text is used for conversational purposes. Real-time text also may be used in voicemail, interactive voice response systems, and other similar application.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
“A writing consisting of multiple glyphs, characters, symbols or sentences.”—Wiktionary
Reasonable Accommodation
“A modification or adjustment to a job, the work environment, or the way things usually are done that enables a qualified individual with a disability to enjoy an equal employment opportunity. For example:
  1. Modifications or adjustments to a job application process that enable a qualified applicant with a disability to be considered for the position such qualified applicant desires; or
  2. Modifications or adjustments to the work environment, or to the manner or circumstances under which the position held or desired is customarily performed, that enable a qualified individual with a disability to perform the essential functions of that position; or
  3. Modifications or adjustments that enable a covered entity’s employee with a disability to enjoy equal benefits and privileges of employment as are enjoyed by its other similarly situated employees without disabilities.”
ADA National Network
Reasonable Modification
“A change in a policy, practice, or procedure that is done to offer equal access and equal opportunity for a person with a disability. There are limits on these changes, and that is where reasonable comes in. Title II public entities … do not have to make a modification that would fundamentally alter a service, program, or activity that they must provide to the public. A Title III public accommodation … does not have to make a modification that would fundamentally alter the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations it offers to the public—in other words, its goods and services. An example of a reasonable modification would be to permit a service animal to go where the public may go in a building, even though animals are not generally allowed.”—Northeast ADA Center
“A public entity must modify its policies, practice, or procedures to avoid discrimination unless the modification would fundamentally alter the nature of its service, program, or activity.”—ADA National Network
Note: This is not a synonym for reasonable accommodation, which is a term that applies to employment.
Reasonable Portion
That segment of a building, facility, area, space or condition, which would normally be necessary if the activity therein is to be accessible by persons with disabilities.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Record of Impairment
“An individual has a record of impairment if the individual has a history of, or has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.”—Paraphrased from Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.108 Definition of disability) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.105 Definition of "Disability.")
Regarded as Having an Impairment
“An individual is "regarded as having an impairment" if the individual is subjected to a prohibited action because of an actual or perceived physical or mental impairment, whether or not that impairment substantially limits, or is perceived to substantially limit, a major life activity, even if the public entity or public accommodation asserts, or may or does ultimately establish, a defense to the action prohibited by the ADA An individual is not "regarded as having an impairment" if the public entity or public accommodation demonstrates that the impairment is, objectively, both "transitory" and "minor." A public entity or public accommodation may not defeat "regarded as" coverage of an individual simply by demonstrating that it subjectively believed the impairment was transitory and minor; rather, the public entity or public accommodation must demonstrate that the impairment is (in the case of an actual impairment) or would be (in the case of a perceived impairment), objectively, both "transitory" and "minor." For purposes of this section, "transitory" is defined as lasting or expected to last six months or less.”—Paraphrased from Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.108 Definition of disability) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.105 Definition of "Disability.")
Regulations
“Regulations are issued by government agencies and have the force of law. Regulations provide more detailed interpretation of statutes. Federal regulations can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations.”—ADA National Network
Rehabilitation Act
“The Rehabilitation Act prohibits any program or activity receiving federal funding from discriminating against people with disabilities. It has several sections, each of which concerns a different area of possible discrimination, such as federal workplace practices, architectural barriers, access to programs and services, procurement of electronic and informational goods and services—including websites—and more.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Enacted in 1973, the Rehabilitation Act is a "federal anti-discrimination law that implicates federal and federally-funded programs in their treatment of individuals with disabilities." At first, it focused on equal employment practices, reasonable accommodations, and federally subsidized programs, but when section 508 was signed into law in 1998, it broadened its gaze to cover equal access to electronic and information technology.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Relay Service
“Also known as Telecommunication Relay Service, or IP-Relay, this is an operator service that allows individuals who are deaf, hard-of-hearing, speech-impaired, and speech-disabled to place calls to standard telephone users via TDD, TTY, personal computer or other assistive telephone device.”—ADA National Network
Revenue Facility
“See Passenger Stations.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Revenue Service
(Miles, Hours, and Trips) “The time when a vehicle is available to the general public and there is an expectation of carrying passengers. These passengers either:
  • Directly pay fares;
  • Are subsidized by public policy; or
  • Provide payment through some contractual arrangement.
Vehicles operated in fare free service are considered in revenue service. Revenue service includes:
  • Layover / recovery time.
Revenue service excludes:
  • Deadhead;
  • Vehicle maintenance testing;
  • School bus service; and
  • Charter service.”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Revenue Vehicle
“The floating and rolling stock used to provide revenue service for passengers.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Revised 508 Standards
“The standards for ICT developed, procured, maintained, or used by agencies subject to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act as set forth in 508 Chapters 1 and 2 (36 CFR part 1194, Appendix A), and Chapters 3 through 7 (36 CFR part 1194, Appendix C).”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Right-of-way
In the context of rail modes of transit, “The area through which a train travels; a train’s dynamic envelope, to include the track and the area around the track.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“A general term denoting land, property, or interest therein, usually in a strip, acquired for or devoted to transportation purposes. Alternately, "right-of-way" is also a term that confers to a road user or train the priority to proceed in preference to other vehicles or pedestrians, depending upon the rules of the road and traffic control devices in use.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
See also Public Right-of-Way
Road User
“Vehicle operators, pedestrians including persons with disabilities, or bicyclists within a road or highway.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Roadway
“The portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel and parking lanes, but exclusive of the sidewalk, berm, or shoulder even though such sidewalk, berm, or shoulder is used by persons riding bicycles or other human-power vehicles.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Rolling Stock
“Transit vehicles such as buses, vans, cars, railcars, locomotives, trolley cars and buses, and ferry boats, as well as vehicles used for support services.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“The revenue vehicles used in providing transit service for passengers. The term revenue vehicles includes the body and chassis and all fixtures and appliances inside or attached to the body or chassis, except fare collection equipment and revenue vehicle movement control equipment (radios). For rubber-tired vehicles, it includes the cost of one set of tires and tubes to make the vehicle operational, if the tires and tubes are owned by the transit agency.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from FTA)
ROW
Abbreviation (initialism) for Right-of-Way
RTT
Abbreviation (initialism) for real-time text.
Running Slope
The slope that is parallel to the direction of travel. (As differentiated from the definition of "Cross Slope.")”—2019 CBC, Section 202
SAP
Abbreviation (initialism) for Secondary Audio Programs
Scoping Requirement
Information regarding the “what” and “how many” aspects of providing accessible elements and facilities, in contrast with technical requirements. For example, scoping for a toilet facility identifies the number and types of accessible fixtures that are required based on the total number of fixtures provided. Scoping requirements can establish a required minimum number of accessible elements (such as “at least one” or “five percent” or “all”), or they can establish accessibile requirements for optional elements (usually indicatd by “where provided” or similar language).
Screen Reader
“A software program used to allow reading of content and navigation of the screen using speech or Braille output. Used primarily by people who have difficulty seeing. JAWS and NVDA are examples.”—usability.gov, Accessibility Glossary Terms
“A type of assistive technology which uses synthetic language to read and navigate digital documents to the blind. JAWS and NVDA are two of the most commonly used.”—Accessible360, Accessibility Glossary of Terms
“A screen reader is a technology that converts digital text into synthesized speech. It allows the user to hear content and navigate through a keyboard, which directly relates to keyboard accessibility. Those who are blind or low vision, or who have a cognitive or learning disability may use a screen reader.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Seating Capacity
“The number of seats that are actually installed in the vehicle.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Secondary Audio Programs
“A service carried alongside a television channel as an alternative or augmentation to the audio that accompanies the video portion of a program. Listeners can choose this secondary audio signal through either a television, a stereo VCR equipped to receive SAP signals, or a special SAP receiver.”—ADA Action Guide
Section 504
“Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-112, 87 Stat. 394 (29 U.S.C. 794), as amended.”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions)
Section 508
“Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act was enacted to eliminate barriers in information technology, to make available new opportunities for people with disabilities, and to encourage development of technologies that will help achieve these goals. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. To learn more go to section508.gov Under Section 508 (29 U.S.C. § 794d), Federal Agencies must give disabled employees and members of the public access to information that is comparable to the access available to others.”—usability.gov, Accessibility Glossary Terms
Sensitive Security Information
“Sensitive Security Information (SSI) is information that, if publicly released, would be detrimental to transportation security, as defined by Federal regulation 49 C.F.R. part 1520.”—Sensitive Security Informaton: Best Practices Guide for Non-DHS Employees and Contractors
Service Animal
“Any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not service animals for the purposes of this definition. The work or tasks performed by a service animal must be directly related to the individual’s disability. Examples of work or tasks include, but are not limited to, assisting individuals who are blind or have low vision with navigation and other tasks, alerting individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to the presence of people or sounds, providing non-violent protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, assisting an individual during a seizure, alerting individuals to the presence of allergens, retrieving items such as medicine or the telephone, providing physical support and assistance with balance and stability to individuals with mobility disabilities, and helping persons with psychiatric and neurological disabilities by preventing or interrupting impulsive or destructive behaviors. The crime deterrent effects of an animal’s presence and the provision of emotional support, well-being, comfort, or companionship do not constitute work or tasks for the purposes of this definition.”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Services
“Includes the providing of lighting, heating, cooling, electricity, office furniture, office machines and equipment, classroom furnishings and equipment, kitchen appliances, playground equipment, telephone service (including installation of lines and equipment and other expenses associated with telephone services), and security systems (including installation and other expenses associated with security systems), including replacement equipment, as needed.”—40 USC § 590(c)(1)
SGML
Abbreviation (initialism) for Standard Generalized Markup Language
Shared Use Path
“A multi-use path designed primarily for use by bicyclists and pedestrians, including pedestrians with disabilities, for transportation and recreation purposes. Shared use paths are physically separated from motor vehicle traffic by an open space or barrier, and are either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way.”—Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG)
Shoulder
“The portion of the roadway adjacent to the traveled way that is primarily intended for accommodation of stopped vehicles for emergency use and for lateral support of base and pavement surface courses.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Sidewalk
A surfaced pedestrian way contiguous to a street used by the public. (As differentiated from the defintion of "Walk.")”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“That portion of a street between the curb line or the lateral line of a roadway, and the adjacent property line or on easements of private property that is paved or improved and intended for use by pedestrians.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Sign
An element composed of displayed textual, verbal, symbolic, tactile, and/or pictorial information.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Signage
A system or collection of signs and similar communication elements.
Slip Resistant
A rough finish that is not abrasive to the bare foot.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Slip-resistant Surface
“A slip-resistant surface provides sufficient frictional counterforce to the forces exerted in walking to permit safe ambulation.”— Advisory 302 General from 2010 ADA Standards
Software
“Programs, procedures, rules, and related data and documentation that direct the use and operation of ICT and instruct it to perform a given task or function. Software includes, but is not limited to, applications, non-Web software, and platform software.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Software Tools
Software for which the primary function is the development of other software. Software tools usually come in the form of an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and are a suite of related products and utilities. Examples of IDEs include Microsoft® Visual Studio®, Apple® Xcode®, and Eclipse Foundation Eclipse®.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Space
A definable area, such as, a room, toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or lobby.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Specified Public Transportation
Transportation by bus, rail, or any other conveyance (other than aircraft) provided by a private entity to the general public, with general or special service (including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“Transportation by bus, rail, or any other conveyance (other than aircraft) provided by a private entity to the general public, with general or special service (including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis.”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
“Transportation by bus, rail, or any other conveyance (other than by aircraft) that provides the general public with general or special service (including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis.”— Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Speech-To-Speech (STS)
“A relay service available to any telephone callers with a speech disability and to those who wish to talk with them.”—ADA National Network
SSI
Abbreviation (initialism) for Sensitve Security Information
Stable Surface
“A stable surface is one that remains unchanged by contaminants or applied force, so that when the contaminant or force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.”— Advisory 302 General from 2010 ADA Standards
Standard Generalized Markup Language
“An international standard in markup languages, a basis for HTML and a precursor to XML.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Standing Capacity
“The number of standing passengers that can be accommodated aboard the revenue vehicle during a normal full load (non-crush) in accordance with established loading policy or, in absence of a policy, the manufacturer’s rated standing capacity figures.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Statute
“A law made by a legislature, such as the United States Congress. Federal statutes can be found in the United States Code.”—ADA National Network
Story
“…That portion of a building or facility designed for human occupancy included between the upper surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above. A story containing one or more mezzanines has more than one floor level. If the finished floor level directly above a basement or unused under-floor space is more than six feet (1829 mm) above grade for more than 50 percent of the total perimeter or is more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above grade at any point, the basement or unused under-floor space shall be considered as a story.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Structural Frame
The columns and the girders, beams and trusses having direct connections to the columns and all other members that are essential to the stability of the building or facility as a whole.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Subtitles
“Subtitles are synchronized with media so that the text displays at the same time words are spoken. Non-speech elements are not typically included in subtitles, and are mostly intended for a viewer who may not understand the spoken language. If English is your primary language and if you’ve ever watched a French film, the English translations displayed at the bottom of the screen are subtitles.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Switch
“Track device to diverge cars/trains to another track.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
System
“A system is a group of devices or objects forming a network especially for distributing something or serving a common purpose (e.g. telephone, data processing systems).”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Tactile
An object that can be perceive dusing the sense of touch.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Tactile Sign
A sign containing raised characters and/or symbols and accompanying Braille.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Tangent Track
“Straight track.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
TBIT
Abbreviation (acronym) for “Tom Bradley International Terminal”; usually read as “tih-bit” (ˈti-bit or /ˈtɪ.bɪt/) as an acronym.
Also known as Terminal B.
TDD
Abbreviation (initialism) for “Telecommunications Device for the Deaf” (usually meaning the same as TTY).
Technical Requirement
Information regarding “how” an accessible elements must be designed and built, in contrast with scoping requirements. For example, technical requirements for a toilet fixture identify the mounting height and clear floor space required for an accessible fixture. Technical requirements are not applicable unless they are specifically scoped. For example, only certain benches related to dressing-type activities are required to comply with the technical requirements for accessible benches.
Technically Infeasible
An alteration of a building or a facility, that has little likelihood of being accomplished because the existing structural conditions requier the removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or features that are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction and which are necessary to provide accessibility.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Telecommunications
“The transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.”—36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1194, Information and Communication Technology Standards and Guidelines, § D1194.4 Definitions
“The signal transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Telecommunication Relay Service (TRS)
“Also known as a Relay Service, or IP-Relay, this is an operator service that allows individuals who are deaf, hard-of-hearing, speech-impaired, and speech-disabled to place calls to standard telephone users via TDD, TTY, personal computer or other assistive telephone device.”—ADA National Network
Telecommunications Device for the Deaf
“An electronic device for text communication via a telephone line, used when one or more of the parties has hearing or speech difficulties.”—ADA National Network
Teletypewriter
“Also know as a Teletype, or text telephone, this is a device for text communication via a telephone line, used when one or more of the parties has hearing or speech difficulties.”—ADA National Network
Temporary
Buildings and facilities intended for use at one location for not more than one year and seats intended for use at one location for not more than 90 days.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Terminal
“Device [hardware] or software with which the end user directly interacts and that provides the user interface. For some systems, the software that provides the user interface may reside on more than one device such as a telephone and a server.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Text
“A sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined and that expresses something in human language.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
Title I
“Of the five titles of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title I of the ADA pertains to Employment. Under ADA Title I, covered entities shall not discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability. This applies to job application procedures, hiring, advancement and discharge of employees, worker’s compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.”—ADA National Network
Title II
The second title of the ADA, which applies to state and local government entities, as codified by 28 CFR Part 35.
“Title II applies to State and local government entities, and, in subtitle A, protects qualified individuals with disabilities from discrimination on the basis of disability in services, programs, and activities provided by State and local government entities. Title II extends the prohibition on discrimination established by section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, 29 U.S.C. 794, to all activities of State and local governments regardless of whether these entities receive Federal financial assistance.”—ada.gov
“Of the five titles of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title II of the ADA pertains to State and Local Government (public entities). ADA Title II requires agencies to comply with regulations similar to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. These rules cover access to all services, programs, or activities offered by the public entity, and extends coverage to public transportation entities. Access includes physical access described in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards or the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity.”—ADA National Network
Title III
The third title of the ADA, which applies to public accommodations and commercial facilities, as codified by 28 CFR Part 36.
“Title III prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in the activities of places of public accommodations (businesses that are generally open to the public and that fall into one of 12 categories listed in the ADA, such as restaurants, movie theaters, schools, day care facilities, recreation facilities, and doctors’ offices) and requires newly constructed or altered places of public accommodation—as well as commercial facilities (privately owned, nonresidential facilities such as factories, warehouses, or office buildings)—to comply with the ADA Standards.”—ada.gov
“Of the five titles of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title III of the ADA pertains to Public Accommodations (private entities). Under ADA Title III, no individual may be discriminated against on the basis of disability with regards to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, or accommodations of any place of public accommodation by any person who owns, leases (or leases to), or operates a place of public accommodation.”—ADA National Network
Title IV
“Of the five titles of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title IV of the ADA pertains to Telecommunications. ADA Title IV addresses telephone and television access for individuals with hearing and speech disabilities. Specific requirements under Title IV include: closed captioning of Federally funded public service announcements (PSA), and telephone companies must establish in-state and state-to-state telecommunications relay services (TRS) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.”—ADA National Network
Title V
“Of the five titles of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title V of the ADA pertains to miscellaneous provisions, most of which apply to all titles of the ADA.”—ADA National Network
Track Elements
“The rails used to move either revenue or service rolling stock. Linear assets are reported as either Tangent, Curve, or Special Work Assets. Tangent and Curve track will be reported in terms of track miles. Special work assets will be reported as the quantity of each subcategory listed below:
  • Double diamond crossover
  • Single crossover
  • Half grand union
  • Single turnout
  • Grade crossing”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Traffic Control Device
“A sign, signal, marking, or other device used to regulate, warn, or guide traffic.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Train
“A train consists of one or more contiguous vehicles combined into an operating unit.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
“One or more passenger cars (including locomotives) coupled together and propelled by self-contained motor equipment. Also known as a consist which may be any one of the following:
  • A locomotive and one or more passenger cars as in the commuter rail (CR) mode; or
  • One or more heavy rail (HR) or light rail (LR) vehicles; or
  • One vehicle only, if appropriate to that mode (e.g. cable car (CC)).”
National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
“One or more locomotives coupled with or without cars that operates on railroad or LRT tracks and to which State law requires that all other traffic must yield the ROW at highway-rail grade crossings.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Transcript
“A text only version of what’s said in a movie or television program; they are not real time and they generally are limited to speech only; they are not a recommended substitute for captions.”—usability.gov, Accessibility Glossary Terms
“A transcript is the output of the transcription process, typically in the form of a document. Transcript formats include HTML, Word (.doc), Text (.txt), and PDF (.pdf) files.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Transcription
“Transcription is the process in which speech or audio is converted into a written document. The two main transcription practices are verbatim and clean read.”—3PlayMedia, Accessibility Terms Defined
Transit
“Synonymous term with public transportation.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Transit Boarding Platform
A horizontal, generally level surface, whether raised above, recessed below or level with a transit rail, from which persons embark/disembark a fixed rail vehicle.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
See also Platform
Transit Center
“A fixed location where passengers interchange from one route or vehicle to another that has significant infrastructure such as a waiting room, benches, restrooms, sales outlet, ticket or pass vending machines, and/or other services.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners (from American Public Transportation Association (APTA))
Transit Controlled Property
“Property owned by the transit agency and areas utilized by a transit agency to provide revenue service such as bus stops, transit centers, and parking lots.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Transit Facility Occupant
“A person who is inside the public passenger area of a transit revenue facility. Employees, other workers, or trespassers are not transit facility occupants.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Transit Passenger
“A person who is:
  • On board;
  • Boarding; or
  • Alighting from a transit vehicle for the purpose of travel.
Excludes operators, transit employees, and contractors.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Transit Station
“See passenger station”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Transportation Network
“Integrated system of all modes of travel such as carpool, auto, bus transit, and bicycle.”—TCRP Report 78: Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Public Transit Projects: A Guidebook for Practitioners
Traveled Way
“The portion of the roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of shoulders.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
TRS
Abbreviation (initialism) for Telecommunication Relay Service
TTY
Originally an abbreviation (initialism) for “teletypewriter” but now generally applicable to “… Machinery that employs interactive text-based communication through transmission of coded signals across telephone networks. TTYs may include, for example, devices known as TDDs (telecommunication display devices or telecommunication devices for deaf persons) or computers with special modems. TTYs are also called text telephones.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“Equipment that enables interactive text based communications through the transmission of frequency-shift-keying audio tones across the public switched telephone network. TTYs include devices for real-time text communications and voice and text intermixed communications. Examples of intermixed communications are voice carry over and hearing carry over. One example of a TTY is a computer with TTY emulating software and modem.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
UEB
Abbreviation (initialism) for Unified English Braille
Undue Burden
“A requirement of Title II or Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that would cause a significant difficulty or expense if carried out. This means that a state or local government or its agencies, or a business or nonprofit organization covered by the ADA, does not have to provide an auxiliary aid or service, or a modification, if providing it would cause a significant administrative or financial difficulty. Undue burden is similar to undue hardship under Title I (employment). ¶ When deciding whether something is an undue burden, you have to look at several factors. These factors include the overall cost involved in light of the entire organization and any parent organization, and the operation and nature of the organization. If an auxiliary aid or service is an undue burden, the organization must look for an effective alternative. For example, if a small, private museum cannot afford to provide a sign language interpreter for a museum tour on short notice, a written copy of the tour guide—s script might be an alternative.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Significant difficulty or expense. A public accommodation is not required to provide any auxiliary aid or service that would result in an undue burden.”—ADA National Network
“Significant difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action would result in an undue burden, factors to be considered include –
  1. The nature and cost of the action needed under this part;
  2. The overall financial resources of the site or sites involved in the action; the number of persons employed at the site; the effect on expenses and resources; legitimate safety requirements that are necessary for safe operation, including crime prevention measures; or the impact otherwise of the action upon the operation of the site;
  3. The geographic separateness, and the administrative or fiscal relationship of the site or sites in question to any parent corporation or entity;
  4. If applicable, the overall financial resources of any parent corporation or entity; the overall size of the parent corporation or entity with respect to the number of its employees; the number, type, and location of its facilities; and
  5. If applicable, the type of operation or operations of any parent corporation or entity, including the composition, structure, and functions of the workforce of the parent corporation or entity.”
Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
Undue Financial and Administrative Burden
“A public entity does not have to take any action that it can demonstrate would result in an undue financial and administrative burden. This applies in program accessibility, effective communication, and auxiliary aids and services. The determination of a undue financial and administrative burden must be:
  1. Made by the head of the public entity or his/her designee.
  2. Accompanied by a written statement of the reasons.
  3. Based on all resources available for use in the program.”
ADA National Network
Undue Hardship
“An action that requires "significant difficulty or expense" in relation to the size of the employer, the resources available, and the nature of the operation. The concept of undue hardship includes any action that is unduly costly, extensive, substantial, disruptive, or would fundamentally alter the nature or operation of the business. Accordingly, whether a particular accommodation will impose an undue hardship must always be determined on a case-by-case basis.”—ADA National Network
Unified English Braille
The official version of braille developed between 1993 and 2004 by the International Council on English Braille (ICEB) and adopted in 2012 by the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) for use in the United States (except for mathematics and science notation, music, and IPA, each of which uses its own specialty braille notation).
United States Access Board or U.S. Access Board
A more formal name for the Access Board.
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
“Federal agency designated to enforce the Fair Housing Act (FHA).”—ADA National Network
United States Department of Justice
The federal agency “responsible for issuing rules for Title II (state and local government) and Title III (businesses and nonprofit organizations that are open to the public) of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The DOJ is also responsible for enforcing these rules, though the DOJ works on enforcement with several other federal agencies. For example, it works with the US Department of Education on education-related enforcement and the US Department of Transportation on transportation-related enforcement. ¶ The DOJ has adopted the physical access requirements developed by the US Access Board. This made them enforceable under the ADA, and now they are known as the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. ¶ Also, the Civil Rights Division of the DOJ has created a useful website, ADA.gov.”—Northeast ADA Center
“Federal agency that has the authority to enforce all provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), but focuses primarily on ADA Title II (public services by State and local government) and ADA Title III (public accommodations).”—ADA National Network
United States Department of Labor (DOL)
“Federal agency responsible for administering and enforcing the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).”—ADA National Network
United States Department of the Interior
“Federal agency whose Civil Rights Division handles Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).”—ADA National Network
United States Department of Transportation
“A federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation. … The department’s mission is "to develop and coordinate policies that will provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, and the national defense."”—Wikipedia
“Federal agency which, in cooperation with the U.S. Access Board, develops standards for transportation vehicles, including over-the-road buses, under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).”—ADA National Network
Universal Design
“Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.”—Ron Mace, via The Center for Universal Design at https://projects.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm
Unreasonable Hardship
When the enforcing agency finds that compliance with the building standard would make the specific work of the project affected by the building standard infeasible, based on an overall evaluation of the following factors:
  1. The cost of providing access.
  2. The cost of all construction contemplated.
  3. The impact of proposed improvements on financial feasibility of the project.
  4. The nature of the accessibility which would be gained or lost.
  5. The nature of the use of the facility under construction and its availability to persons with disabilities.
The details of any finding of unreasonable hardship shall be recorded and entered in the files of the enforcing agency.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Usability
“The principle that information and applications should not only be accessible but also easy to use and understand.”—Accessible360, Accessibility Glossary of Terms
USC or U.S.C.
Abbreviation (initialism) for “United States Code”
Variable Message Sign
Electronic signs that have a message with the capacity to change by means of scrolling, streaming, or paging across a background.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“Non-interactive electronic signs with scrolling, streaming, or paging-down capability. An example of a VMS is an electronic message board at a transit station that displays the gate and time information associated with the next train arrival.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
VCO
Abbreviation (initialism) for Voice Carry-Over
Vehicle
“The smallest unit that can operate alone or that comprises one of the basic building blocks of a train.”—American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE 21-13
“As the term is applied to private entities, does not include a rail passenger car, railroad locomotive, railroad freight car, or railroad caboose, or other rail rolling stock described in section 242 of title III of [the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-336, 104 Stat. 327, 42 U.S.C. 12101-12213 and 47 U.S.C. 225 and 611), as it may be amended from time to time].”—49 CFR 37.3 (Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities (ADA))
Vehicle Type
“The form of passenger conveyance used for revenue operations.”—National Transit Database (NTD) Glossary
Vehicular Way
A route provided for vehicular traffic, such as in a street, driveway, or parking facility.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Vertical Surface Discontinuities
“Vertical differences in level between two adjacent surfaces.”—Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (PROWAG)
Video Relay Services
VRS allows an individual who uses sign language to able to place a phone call by signing instead of typing. The VI (video interpreter) uses a web cam or videophone to voice the signs of the individual who is deaf or has a hearing or speech disability to the person who has hearing and sign the words of the person who has hearing to the individual who is deaf or has a hearing or speech disability.”—ADA National Network
Video Remote Interpreting
“The use of videoconferencing technology, equipment, and a high speed Internet connection to provide the services of a qualified interpreter, usually located off-site (remote) to people at a different location. VRI is commonly used to provide communication between people who are deaf and use sign language and people who hear and use their voice.”—ADA Action Guide
See also video remote interpreting (VRI) service
Video remote interpreting (VRI) service
“An interpreting service that uses video conference technology over dedicated lines or wireless technology offering high-speed, wide-bandwidth video connection that delivers high-quality video images as provided in §35.160(d).”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
See also video remote interpreting
Videophone
“A telephone with a video display, capable of simultaneous video and audio for communication between people in real-time. People who are deaf and hard of hearing may call other people who use sign language or call non-signers using a video relay service.”—ADA Action Guide
Videotext Display
“A system that provides interactive content and displays it on a television, typically using modems to send data in both directions.”—ADA Action Guide
VMS
Abbreviation (initialism) for Variable Message Sign
VMS Characters
Characters of an electronic sign are composed of pixels in an array. High resolution VMS characters have vertical pixel counts of 16 rows or greater. Low resolution VMS characters have vertical pixel counts of 7 to 15 rows.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Voice Carry-Over
“A call type method that allows an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing to use his or her voice while receiving responses from a hearing person via text typed by the relay operator (also known as communication assistant or relay agent). VCO, a more common call type than Hearing Carry-Over (HCO), has many variations, including 2-Line VCO.”—ADA National Network
Voice over Internet Protocol
“A technology that provides real-time voice communications. VoIP requires a broadband connection from the user’s location and customer premises equipment compatible with Internet protocol.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
VoIP
Abbreviation (acronym or initialism) for Voice over Internet Protocol. Usually read as “voyp” (ˈvȯip or /vɔɪˈp/) as an acronym, but can be spelled out as an initialism.
VRI
Abbreviation (initialism) for Video Remote Interpreting
VRS
Abbreviation (initialism) for Video Relay Services
W3C
Abbreviation for the World Wide Web Consortium, an unincorporated entity responsible for developing standards for the World Wide Web and related technologies.
WAI
Abbreviation (initialism) for Web Accessibility Initiative.
Walk
An exterior prepared surface for pedestrian use, including pedestrian areas such as plazas and courts. (As differentiated from the definition of "Sidewalk.") …”—2019 CBC, Section 202
Wayside Equipment
“The signals, switches, and/or control devices for railroad operations housed within one or more enclosures located along the railroad ROW.”—Highway-Rail Crossing Handbook – Third Edition by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
WC
Abbreviation (initialism) for “water closet” (plumbing fixture)
WCAG
Abbreviation (acronym or initialism) for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines. Usually read as “wuh kag” (wi-ˈkag or /wɪˈkæg/) an acronym but can be spelled out as an intialism.
WCTA
Abbreviation (initialism) for “West CTA Station” (also known as “CTA West Station” or “Station A”), one of the public APM stations that serves Terminals B (TBIT), 3, 4 and 5
Web
Common shortened form of World Wide Web.
Web Accessibility Initiative
“A domain of W3C that attempts to ensure the use of the Web by anyone regardless of disability.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
“A single shared standard for web content accessibility that meets the needs of individuals, organizations, and governments internationally.  The WCAG documents explain how to make web content more accessible to people with disabilities. Web "content" generally refers to the information in a web page or web application, including:
  • natural information such as text, images, and sounds
  • code or markup that defines structure, presentation, etc.”
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview
Web Core
“The collection of resources residing on the Internet that can be accessed using any implemented version of HTTP as part of the protocol stack (or its equivalent), either directly or via an intermediary.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Web Page
“A non-embedded resource obtained from a single Universal Resource Identifier (URI) using HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) plus any other resources that are provided for the rendering, retrieval, and presentation of content.”—E103.4 Defined Terms, Revised 508 Standards, United States Access Board
“A collection of information, consisting of one or more Web resources, intended to be rendered simultaneously, and identified by a single URI. More specifically, a Web page consists of a Web resource with zero, one, or more embedded Web resources intended to be rendered as a single unit, and referred to by the URI of the one Web resource which is not embedded.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Web Resource
“A resource, identified by a URI, that is a member of the Web Core.”—W3C 2003 Glossary
“Anything that can be identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); refer to RFC 2396”—W3C 2003 Glossary
Web Site
One or more web pages organized and linked together, usually under a single top-level domain name, subdomain, or directory/folder, and able to be accessed via the World Wide Web.
Wheelchair
A chair mounted on wheels to be propelled by its occupant manually or with the aid of electric power, of a size and configuration conforming to the recognized standard models of the trade.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
“A manually-operated or power-driven device designed primarily for use by an individual with a mobility disability for the main purpose of indoor, or of both indoor and outdoor locomotion. This definition does not apply to Federal wilderness areas; wheelchairs in such areas are defined in section 508(c)(2) of the ADA, 42 U.S.C. 12207 (c)(2).”— Title II Regulations (28 CFR Part 35, §35.104 Definitions) and — Title III Regulations (28 CFR Part 36, §36.104 Definitions)
See other power-driven mobility device for contrasting definition.
Wheelchair Space
“A space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
White Cane
“Cane used by individuals who are blind or have low vision that may both improve mobility independence and symbolize to others that an individual is blind or has a visual impairment.”—Accessibility.com Glossary (White Cane)
WITF
Abbreviation (initialism) for “West ITF Station” (also known as “ITF West Station” or “Station E”), one of the public APM stations that conntects to the ITF West facility and surface transportation
Workstation
“… An area defined by equipment and/or work surfaces intended for use by employees only, and generally for one or a small number of employees at a time. Examples include ticket booths; the employee side of grocery store check stands; the bartender area behind a bar; the employee side of snack bars, sales counters and public counters; guardhouses; toll booths; kiosk vending stands; lifeguard stations; maintenance equipment closets; counter and equipment areas in restaurant kitchens; file rooms; storage areas; etc.”—2019 CBC, Section 202
World Wide Web
Usually preceded by the: collectively, all of the hypertext documents (web pages) on the Internet stored in different computers around the world that hyperlink to each other and to other kinds of media, and are typically retrieved by the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS).”—Wiktionary
WWW
Abbreviation (initialism) for “World Wide Web
XML
Abbreviation (initialism) for Extensible Markup Language.